Difference Between Inbreeding and Interbreeding

Main Difference – Inbreeding vs Interbreeding

Inbreeding and interbreeding are two breeding methods of both animals and plants. Breeding is the sexual reproduction that produces an offspring. The main difference between inbreeding and interbreeding is that inbreeding is a breeding of genetically similar parents whereas interbreeding is a breeding between two different species the same genus. Inbreeding is mostly used to preserve desirable characteristics in a stock. Interbreeding brings separate genetic factors together.

Key Areas Covered

1. What is Inbreeding
      – Definition, Selfing, Backcross
2. What is Interbreeding
      – Definition, Process, Examples
3. What are the Similarities Between Inbreeding and Interbreeding
      – Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between Inbreeding and Interbreeding
      – Comparison of Common Features

Key Terms: Backcross, Characteristics, Hybrid, Inbreeding, Interbreeding, Offspring, Selfing, VigourDifference Between Inbreeding and Interbreeding - Comparison Summary

What is Inbreeding

Inbreeding refers to the breeding of closely related individuals over many generations. It is important in preserving desired characteristics and eliminating undesired characteristics from the offspring. However, it decreases the size, vigour, and the fertility of the offspring. Moreover, the susceptibility of the individuals to the diseases increases within inbreed due to the accumulation of harmful genes. Self-fertilization or selfing is the major type of inbreeding. Both male and the female sex cells of the same organism fuse together during selfing. Outbreeding is the opposite of inbreeding. In outbreeding, breeding occurs between two organisms that are not closely related. Inbreeding is shown in figure 1.

Main Difference - Inbreeding vs Interbreeding

Figure 1: Selfing

Backcross is another common type of inbreeding. This is the breeding of one individual of the offspring with one of its parents or with an organism that is genetically similar to the parent. Backcrossing is shown in figure 2.

Difference Between Inbreeding and Interbreeding_Figure 2

Figure 2: Backcross

Backcross is used to isolate certain characteristics in a group of organisms. For example, it is used to improve the milk and meat production in cows.

What is Interbreeding

Interbreeding refers to the breeding of individuals of different species, subspecies or varieties of the same genus. This combines the characteristics of different breeds through sexual reproduction. Most characteristics of the offspring of interbreed are intermediates between the two parental varieties. Some characteristics such as vigour of the offspring are hybrid. Therefore, the offspring of interbreed is also called a hybrid. Typically, the hybrid species grow taller than the two parental species. Zonkey is a hybrid between a zebra and donkey. A zonkey is shown in figure 3.

Difference Between Inbreeding and Interbreeding

Figure 3: Zonkey

The reproductive isolation of species limits interbreeding between different species. This occurs by the strong hybridization barriers such as different mating behaviors, different times of fertility, and physiological rejection of sperm cells in animals. In plants, different flowering times, pollen vectors, somatoplastic sterility, and the structure of the chromosomes act as hybridization barriers.

Similarities Between Inbreeding and Interbreeding

  • Both inbreeding and interbreeding are two breeding methods that allow producing a successful offspring.
  • Inbreeding and interbreeding occur in both animals and plants.
  • Both inbreeding and interbreeding bring useful characteristics together.

Difference Between Inbreeding and Interbreeding

Definition

Inbreeding: Inbreeding refers to the breeding of closely related individuals over many generations.

Interbreeding: Interbreeding refers to the breeding of individuals of different species, subspecies or varieties of the same genus.

Breeding

Inbreeding: Inbreeding is a breeding between genetically similar parents.

Interbreeding: Interbreeding is a breeding between two different species of the same genus.

Role

Inbreeding: Inbreeding is used to preserve desirable characteristics in a stock.

Interbreeding: Interbreeding is used to bring separate genetic factors together.

Vigour

Inbreeding: Inbreeding may reduce vigour.

Interbreeding: Interbreeding may produce a hybrid vigour.

Examples

Inbreeding: Selfing and backcross are examples of inbreeding.

Interbreeding: Zonkey, liger, jaglion, durum wheat, and Lilium are the examples of interbreeds.

Conclusion

Inbreeding and interbreeding are two methods of breeding used by animals and plants. Interbreeding is the breeding between closely related organisms. It is used to preserve desirable characteristics through a progeny. Interbreeding is the breeding between different species of the same genus. It produces hybrid species. This is the basic difference between inbreeding and interbreeding.

Reference:

1.“Inbreeding.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., 28 Apr. 2017, Available here.
2. “Backcross.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., 27 Sept. 2011, Available here.

Image Courtesy:

1. “Inbreeding- Selfing” By Donach – Own work (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia
2. “Inbreeding- Backcross” By Donach – Own work (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia
3. “Zeedonk 800″ (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia

About the Author: Lakna

Lakna, a graduate in Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, is a Molecular Biologist and has a broad and keen interest in the discovery of nature related things

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