Difference Between Potassium Gluconate and Potassium Chloride

Main Difference – Potassium Gluconate vs Potassium Chloride

Potassium is a chemical element which is indicated by the letter “K”. It was the first metal to be isolated by electrolysis. Potassium is very reactive and can react with various non-metal atoms to form different compounds. Potassium gluconate and potassium chloride are such two compounds of potassium. Potassium gluconate is an important potassium supplement. The main difference between Potassium gluconate and Potassium chloride is that Potassium gluconate is the potassium salt of the conjugate base of the gluconic acid whereas potassium chloride is a metal halide of potassium.

Key Areas Covered

1. What is Potassium Gluconate
     – Definition, Chemical Structure and Properties
2. What is Potassium Chloride
     – Definition, Chemical Structure and Properties
3. What are the Similarities Between Potassium Gluconate and Potassium Chloride
     – Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between Potassium Gluconate and Potassium Chloride
     – Comparison of Key Differences

Key Terms: Electrolysis, Conjugate Base, Gluconic Acid, IUPAC Name, KCl, Potassium, Potassium Chloride, Potassium D-gluconate, Potassium Gluconate

Difference Between Potassium Gluconate and Potassium Chloride - Comparison Summary

What is Potassium Gluconate

Potassium gluconate is the potassium salt of the conjugate base of the gluconic acid. It is also called as D-gluconic acid potassium salt or potassium D-gluconate. Potassium gluconate is composed of 16.69% potassium by weight. Gluconic acid is a carboxylic acid; thus, K+1 ion is attached to the oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group by replacing the Hydrogen atom.  This compound exists in the solid phase. The melting point of potassium gluconate is about 175oC.

Potassium gluconate is an odorless compound that is available as white to yellowish crystalline powder or granules. It has a slightly saline taste. It is soluble in water and is stable in air. The storage temperature of potassium gluconate is room temperature. The molecular formula of this compound is C6H11KO7. The IUPAC name of potassium gluconate is Potassium (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhe.

Main Difference - Potassium Gluconate vs Potassium Chloride

Figure 1: Chemical Structure of Potassium Gluconate

Potassium gluconate is used as a mineral supplement or a sequestrant. It is sold as capsules or bulk powder. In this compound, potassium ion (K+1) is bonded to the conjugate base of gluconic acid via an ionic bond. This means that there is an electrostatic attraction between K+1 and gluconate anion.

What is Potassium Chloride

Potassium chloride is a metal halide having the chemical formula KCl. It is an odorless, white crystalline powder. It readily dissolves in water, creating a salt-like taste. It has many uses such as in fertilizers, explosives, scientific applications, food processing, etc. KCl is produced from minerals such as potash.

The molar mass of KCl is 74.548 g/mol. The solutions of potassium chloride have a strong saline taste. The melting point of potassium chloride is 770oC, and the boiling point is 1420oC. At 2732oC, the KCl crystals sublime. Therefore, it is the sublimation temperature. Sublimation is the vaporization of a solid into gaseous phase without going through a liquid phase. 

Difference Between Potassium Gluconate and Potassium Chloride

Figure 2: A Diagram of KCl Lattice Structure

 KCl is an ionic compound. It is composed of small potassium cations and large chloride anions. The crystal structure of KCl is similar to that of NaCl. It has face-centered cubic unit cells. KCl crystals easily cleave in three directions.

Similarities Between Potassium Gluconate and Potassium Chloride

  • Both are potassium cation containing compounds.
  • Both are readily soluble in water.
  • Solutions of both compounds have a saline taste.

Difference Between Potassium Gluconate and Potassium Chloride

Definition

Potassium Gluconate: Potassium gluconate is the potassium salt of the conjugate base of the gluconic acid.

Potassium Chloride: Potassium chloride is a metal halide having the chemical formula KCl.

Chemical Formula

Potassium Gluconate: The chemical formula of Potassium gluconate is C6H11KO7.

Potassium Chloride: The chemical formula of Potassium chloride is KCl.

Molar Mass

Potassium Gluconate: The molar mass of Potassium gluconate is 234.246 g/mol.

Potassium Chloride: The molar mass of potassium chloride is 74.548 g/mol.

Melting Point and Boiling Point

Potassium Gluconate: The melting point of potassium gluconate is about 175°C.

Potassium Chloride: The melting point of potassium chloride is 770°C, and the boiling point is 1420°C. At 2732oC, the KCl crystals sublime.

Taste

Potassium Gluconate: Solutions of potassium gluconate have a slightly saline taste.

Potassium Chloride: Solutions of potassium chloride have a strong saline taste.

Sublimation

Potassium Gluconate: Potassium gluconate does not undergo sublimation.

Potassium Chloride: Potassium chloride can undergo sublimation.

Conclusion

Potassium is a highly reactive chemical element that can form many chemical compounds. Potassium gluconate and potassium chloride are two such compounds. The main difference between Potassium gluconate and Potassium chloride is that Potassium gluconate Potassium gluconate is the potassium salt of the conjugate base of the gluconic acid whereas potassium chloride is metal halide of potassium.

Reference:

1. “Potassium gluconate.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Available here.
2. “Potassium chloride.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 31 Dec. 2017, Available here.
3. “Potassium chloride.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Available here.

Image Courtesy:

1. “Potassium gluconate” By Fvasconcellos 01:39, 8 October 2007 (UTC) – Own work (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia2. “Potassium-chloride-3D-ionic” By Benjah-bmm27 – Own work (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia

About the Author: Madhusha

Madhusha is a BSc (Hons) graduate in the field of Biological Sciences and is currently pursuing for her Masters in Industrial and Environmental Chemistry. Her interest areas for writing and research include Biochemistry and Environmental Chemistry.

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