The main difference between proteomics and transcriptomics is that the proteomics is the study of the entire set of proteins produced by a particular organism whereas the transcriptomics is the study of the entire set of mRNA synthesized by a particular organism.
Proteomics and transcriptomics are two areas in which the gene expression of a particular organism is studied.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is Proteomics
– Definition, Facts, Applications
2. What is Transcriptomics
– Definition, Facts, Applications
3. What are the Similarities Between Proteomics and Transcriptomics
– Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between Proteomics and Transcriptomics
– Comparison of Key Differences
Applications, mRNA, Proteins, Proteomics, Techniques, Transcriptomics
What is Proteomics
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteomes. The proteome refers to the entire set of proteins produced by a particular organism or a cell. Therefore, a particular type of organism or cell has a unique proteome. The main investigation areas of proteomics are as follows.
- 3D structure prediction of a protein;
- Detection of the location and the time of the protein synthesis;
- The rates of the production of proteins, degradation, and steady-state abundance;
- Protein modifications such as post-translational modifications;
- Protein transport between subcellular compartments;
- Involvement of proteins in metabolic pathways;
- Interaction of proteins with one another.
Several high-throughput technologies such as mass spectroscopy and difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE) are involved in the proteomic studies.
What is Transcriptomics
Transcriptomics is the study of the transcriptome of a particular organism or cell. Transcriptome refers to the entire set of mRNA in the organism or the cell. However, it sometimes also refers to the entire set of RNA. Transcriptome varies with the environmental conditions the organism or the cell has to face. Therefore, it reflects the set of RNA expressed at a defined time under a given set of conditions. Transcriptomics includes the investigation of both the expression profiling and slice variant analysis. DNA microarrays and the RNA Seq are the two main technologies used in transcriptomics.
Similarities Between Proteomics and Transcriptomics
- Proteomics and transcriptomics are two types of fields that study gene expression of a particular organism or a type of cells.
- High throughput techniques are used in both proteomics and transcriptomics.
Difference Between Proteomics and Transcriptomics
The proteomics refers to the study of proteomes and their functions while the transcriptomics refers to the study of transcriptomes and their functions.
Type of Study
Proteomics studies the entire set of proteins expressed while transcriptomics studies the entire set of mRNA expressed in a particular organism.
The proteomics studies the 3D structure and function of proteins, and protein-protein interactions while transcriptomics studies the sequence structure, interactions with the environment and applications of mRNA.
Proteomics involves mass spectroscopy and difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) while transcriptomics involves DNA microarray and RNA Seq as techniques.
Some of the important areas of proteomics are proteome database developments such as SWISS-2DPAGE and software development for computer-aided drug design while transcriptomics involves in the study of cellular differentiation, carcinogenesis, molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways, which control early embryonic development, as biomarkers for the risk assessment of drugs or chemicals, and inferring phylogenetic relationships among individuals.
Proteomics is the study of the entire set of proteins of a particular organism while the transcriptomics is the study of the entire set of mRNA of the organism. Therefore, the main difference between proteomics and transcriptomics is the type of study.
1. “What Is Proteomics?” Proteomics: An Introduction to EMBL-EBI Resources, 8 June 2016, Available Here
2. Lowe, Rohan et al. “Transcriptomics Technologies.” PLoS Computational Biology 13.5 (2017): e1005457. PMC. Web. 10 July 2018, Available Here