What is the Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Division

The main difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell division is that the prokaryotic cell division occurs through binary fission whereas the eukaryotic cell division occurs either through mitosis or meiosis. Furthermore, prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus while eukaryotic cells have a nucleus.

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell division are two types of cell division processes classified based on the organization of the organisms.

Key Areas Covered

1. What is Prokaryotic Cell Division
     – Definition, Mechanism, Outcome
2. What is Eukaryotic Cell Division
     – Definition, Mechanism, Outcome
3. What are the Similarities Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Division
     – Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Division
     – Comparison of Key Differences

Key Terms

Binary Fission, Cytokinesis, Eukaryotic Cell Division, Meiosis, Mitosis, Prokaryotic Cell Division

Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Division- Comparison Summary

What is Prokaryotic Cell Division

Prokaryotic cell division is the process responsible for the production of daughter cells from a parent, prokaryotic cell. And, this process is known as binary fission, which proceeds through three steps. They are DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and separation into daughter cells.

  1. DNA replication – responsible for the synthesis of a copy of the single circular chromosome, which represents the genome of the bacterium. It ensures the receiving of the exact bacterial genome for each of the two daughter cells.
  2. Chromosome segregation – responsible for the segregation of the replicated chromosomes to the opposite poles of the cell. It occurs through the attachment of chromosomes to the different parts of the bacterial cell membrane.
  3. Separation – proceeds through the growth of a new plasma membrane, splitting the cytoplasm of the parent bacterial cell into two daughter cells
    What is the Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Division

    Figure 1: Binary Fission

Furthermore, binary fission in bacteria results in two genetically identical daughter cells of bacteria to the parent bacterial cell.

What is Eukaryotic Cell Division

Eukaryotic cell division is the process responsible for the production of daughter cells in eukaryotes. Generally, eukaryotic cells contain multiple chromosomes packed inside the nucleus. Therefore, DNA replication of eukaryotes occurs during the growth phase of their cell cycle. Also, this occurs inside the nucleus. Moreover, the two stages of eukaryotic cell division are the nuclear division and cytokinesis.

  1. Nuclear division – It is the division of the nucleus into daughter nuclei. It occurs either through mitosis or meiosis. Here, mitosis occurs in the vegetative reproduction while meiosis occurs during the production of gametes in the sexual reproduction. That means; mitosis results in diploid cells while meiosis results in haploid cells.
    Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Division

    Figure 2: Animal Cell Cycle

  2. Cytokinesis – It is the division of cytoplasm into two daughter cells. In plant cells, cytokinesis occurs through the formation of a cell plate while animal cell cytokinesis occurs through the formation of a cleavage furrow.

Similarities Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Division

  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell division are the two processes of producing daughter cells from parent cells.
  • Both processes are involved in increasing the number of cells.
  • Also, their two main stages are the synthesis of new genetic material followed by the division of the cytoplasm.
  • Besides, cell division is the key mechanism of both sexual and asexual reproduction.

Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Division

Definition

Prokaryotic cell division refers to the process responsible for the production of new cells through binary fission while eukaryotic cell division refers to the process responsible for the production of new cells either through mitosis or meiosis. Thus, this is the main difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell division.

Mechanism

Prokaryotic cell division occurs through binary fission while eukaryotic cell division occurs through mitosis and meiosis.

Stages

The three stages of prokaryotic cell division are DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and separation while the two stages of eukaryotic cell division are nuclear division and cytokinesis. Hence, this is another difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell division.

DNA replication

Furthermore, DNA replication in prokaryotes occurs inside the cytoplasm while DNA replication in eukaryotes occurs inside the nucleus.

Complexity

Another difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell division is that the prokaryotic cell division is relatively a simple process while the eukaryotic cell division is complex.

Type of Reproduction

Moreover, prokaryotic cell division is a type of asexual reproduction while eukaryotic cell division is a type of vegetative and sexual reproduction, respectively.

Conclusion

Prokaryotic cell division is the process of producing daughter cells in prokaryotes. It mainly occurs through binary fission. Moreover, prokaryotes do not contain a nucleus. On the other hand, eukaryotic cell division is the process of producing daughter cells in eukaryotes. It mainly occurs through mitosis and meiosis. Significantly, the disintegration of the parent nucleus and the formation of daughter nuclei are two key points in the eukaryotic cell division. However, the main difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell division is the mechanism of cell division.

References:

1. Wilkin, Douglas, and Jean Brainard. “Cell Division.” CK-12 Foundation, CK-12 Foundation, 6 Aug. 2018, Available Here

Image Courtesy:

1. “Binary Fission” By Openstax College (CC BY 3.0.) via OpenStax CNX
2. “Animal cell cycle-en” By Kelvinsong – Own work (CC0) via Commons Wikimedia 

About the Author: Lakna

Lakna, a graduate in Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, is a Molecular Biologist and has a broad and keen interest in the discovery of nature related things

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