The main difference between actinomycosis and actinobacillosis is that actinomycosis is caused by Actinomyces israelii or Actinomyces gerencseriae whereas actinobacillosis is caused by Actinobacillus lignieresii.
Actinomycosis and actinobacillosis are two types of diseases caused by bacteria. They cause lesions in cattle.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is Actinomycosis
– Definition, Structure, Function
2. What is Actinobacillosis
– Definition, Structure, Function
3. Similarities – Actinomycosis and Actinobacillosis
– Outline of Common Features
4. Difference Between Actinomycosis and Actinobacillosis
– Comparison of Key Differences
What is Actinomycosis
Actinomycosis is a rare infection caused by the bacteria Actinomyces israelii or Actinomyces gerencseriae. Around 70% of the infections are caused by the above two bacteria. These bacteria are Gram-positive, non-acid-fast, filamentous, anaerobic, microaerophilic bacteria of the genus Actinomyces. However, actinomycosis is a subacute to chronic diseases, causing infections that are granulomatous and suppurative. The chronic form of the infection produces multiple abscesses in the sinus tract, and these abscesses are associated with sulfur granules. The diagnosis of the disease can be difficult and requires prolonged bacterial culture after isolation. In addition, bacteria need to be grown under anaerobic conditions.
Furthermore, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella, Peptostreptococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus are the other organisms involved in the infection of actinomycosis. In humans, Actinomyces bacteria colonize the human mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract. However, Actinomyces are commensals in the normal flora and are difficult to determine in the colonization of the virus infection.
What is Actinobacillosis
Actinobacillosis is a disease condition caused by Actinobacillus lignieresii bacteria. But, this bacterium is a natural inhabitant in the upper respiratory tract as well as the digestive tract of ruminants. In actinobacillosis, pyogranulomas occur in soft tissues, including the mouth, pharynx, tongue, forestomachs, lungs, skin, lymph nodes, and subcutaneous tissue. Actinobacillosis causes indurative pyogranulomatous glossitis known as “wooden tongue.” Other organs, including skin and lymph nodes, also play a role in the formation of cutaneous actinobacillosis. Nevertheless, the common presentation of the disease is the draining nodular pyogranulomas in the regions of the mandible and neck in cattle.
Moreover, the injury resulting in actinobacillosis differs depending on the location and the tissue. Actinobacillus bacteria are commensal in the oral cavity, reproductive tract, and gastrointestinal cavity.
Similarities Between Actinomycosis and Actinobacillosis
- Actinomycosis and actinobacillosis are two types of diseases that cause lesions in cattle.
- Both occur by bacteria, and they are commensals in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts.
Difference Between Actinomycosis and Actinobacillosis
Actinomycosis refers to a rare subacute to chronic infection caused by the Gram-positive filamentous non-acid fast anaerobic to microaerophilic bacteria Actinomyces, while actinobacillosis refers to a disease of cattle and sheep, caused by infection with an Actinobacillus lignieresii and characterized by soft tissue lesions, esp. of the tongue.
Type of Bacteria
Actinomycosis is caused by Actinomyces israelii or Actinomyces gerencseriae, while Actinobacillosis is caused by Actinobacillus lignieresii.
Symptoms of actinomycosis include draining sores in the skin, fever, swelling or reddish lumps on the face or upper neck, and weight loss, while symptoms of actinobacillosis include inflammation of the gums, hard, swollen tongue, painful mouth, and formation of granulomas.
The treatments for actinomycosis include antimicrobial therapy, while the treatments for actinobacillosis include sodium iodide.
In brief, actinomycosis and actinobacillosis are two types of bacterial diseases that mainly occur in cattle. Actinomycosis is caused by Actinomyces israelii or Actinomyces gerencseriae, gram-positive, filamentous, anaerobic bacteria. Draining sores in the skin, fever, swelling, or reddish lumps on the face and neck are the symptoms of actinomycosis. In addition, antimicrobial therapy is the treatment for actinomycosis. In comparison, actinobacillosis is caused by Actinobacillus lignieresii. The symptoms of the disease include swollen tongue, painful mouth, and the formation of granulomas. Therefore, the main difference between actinomycosis and actinobacillosis is their symptoms.
- Sharma S, Hashmi MF, Valentino III DJ. Actinomycosis. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-.
- Caffarena RD, Rabaza A, Casaux L, Rioseco MM, Schild CO, Monesiglio C, Fraga M, Giannitti F, Riet-Correa F. Natural lymphatic (“atypical”) actinobacillosis in cattle caused by Actinobacillus lignieresii. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2018 Mar;30(2):218-225. doi: 10.1177/1040638717742621. Epub 2017 Dec 4. PMID: 29202671; PMCID: PMC6505872.