The main difference between ANA and ANA Titer is that ANA is the autoantibodies that bind to the content of the nucleus, whereas ANA titer is the level to which the sample can be diluted in order to produce a recognizable staining.
ANA and ANA titer are two terms related to autoantibodies of the cell nucleus. They are antibodies to human antigens.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is ANA
– Definition, Features, Importance
2. What is ANA Titer
– Definition, Features, Importance
3. Similarities Between ANA and ANA Titer
– Outline of Common Features
4. Difference Between ANA and ANA Titer
– Comparison of Key Differences
ANA, ANA Titer
What is ANA (Antinuclear Antibody)
ANA (antinuclear antibody) occurs in disorders including infection, autoimmunity, and cancer. Especially, it is a defining feature of autoimmune connective tissue disease. The components of the ANA are anti-Ro antibodies, anti-nRNP antibodies, anti-La antibodies, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, anti-Sm antibodies, anti-histone antibodies, anti-dsDNA antibodies, antibodies to nuclear pore complexes, anti-sp100 antibodies, and anti-centromere antibodies.
Antinuclear antibodies that occur in disorders bind to the components of the nucleus. They bind to the DNA, RNA, proteins, and nucleic acid-protein complexes in the nucleus.
Furthermore, ANA is important for the diagnosis of autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, Sjögren syndrome, polymyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, autoimmune hepatitis, dermatomyositis, and drug-induced lupus.
What is ANA Titer
ANA titer is the dilution of the sample and produces a recognizable staining. The serum of blood contains ANA. Therefore, ANA can be detected and quantified in the serum. Indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the two types of blood tests to detect and quantify ANA. Titer is the level of antibodies in immunofluorescence assay. Also, it gives a higher dilution of the serum in which antibodies are detectable. Clinically significant antibody titer is greater than 1:160. Therefore, the positive samples of this antibody titer associates strongly with autoimmune disorders. Besides, 5% of the healthy population contains this titer.
Moreover, initial immunofluorescence testing is done on HEp-2 (human epithelial laryngeal carcinoma type 2) cells. Other than detecting and quantifying the ANA to diagnose autoimmune disorders, antibody titers are also important in predicting the progression of autoimmune disorders. However, detectable levels of ANA can be seen in 20 to 30% of the population. However, to diagnose the disease, the positive results need to be interpreted with the clinical manifestations that can exist. On the other hand, test results depend on the substrate cells, the skills of individuals to read the results, and the definition of results that depend on the laboratory.
Similarities Between ANA and ANA Titer
- ANA and ANA titer are two types of autoantibodies produced for the content of the nucleus.
- They occur in many disorders, including autoimmunity, infection, and cancer.
Difference Between ANA and ANA Titer
ANA (antinuclear antibody) refers to the autoantibodies that bind to the contents of the cell nucleus, while ANA titer refers to the level to which a patient’s sample can be diluted and still produce recognizable staining.
ANA is a type of antibody, while ANA titer is an antibody test.
ANA binds to the content of the nucleus, while ANA titer determines the dilution of ANA for the test.
In brief, ANA and ANA titer are two terms related to autoantibodies raised against the content of the nucleus. ANA is the autoantibody produced against the content of the nucleus. It is a type of antibody. ANA also binds to the content of the nucleus. In comparison, ANA titer is the level of dilution of the ANA to produce recognizable staining. It is a test to detect ANA. Therefore, the main difference between ANA and ANA titer is their relationship.
- Nosal RS, Superville SS, Amraei R, et al. Biochemistry, Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) [Updated 2022 Dec 29]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-.
- “Main antinuclear antibody patterns on immunofluorescence” By Al-Mughales JA – Own work (CC-BY 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia
- “ANA Immunofluorescence” By Simon Caulton – Own Work (CC-BY SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia