Once you have understood what an adverb is, ‘what are the kinds of adverbs’ becomes the next question to which you have to find an answer. Knowing the answer to this question is important because only understanding what an adverb is not enough to use an adverb appropriately in a sentence. You should know what adverbs you can use at different times. For example, when you want to say when you did some action, you have to use an adverb that speaks about time. To make it easier for the learner, adverbs are divided into different kinds based on the use they have. Now, we will look at the general definition of adverb and the different kinds of adverbs here.
Definition of Adverb
When an adjective qualifies or modifies a noun, an adverb modifies a verb. However, what is more distinctive in an adverb is the ability it has to modify even an adjective or another adverb apart from a verb. Observe the following examples.
She is reading slowly.
This perfume has a very sweet smell.
The man looked at us quite rudely.
In the first sentence, the word slowly is an adverb. It is easy to identify as it qualifies a verb. In the second sentence, the word very is an adverb as it qualifies the adjective sweet. Then, in the last sentence, the word quite is an adverb that qualifies the adverb rudely. There are several kinds of adverbs. They are adverbs of time, adverbs of frequency, adverbs of place, adverbs of manner, adverbs of degree, adverbs of affirmation and negation and adverbs of reason.
Kinds of Adverbs
Adverbs of Time
These adverbs indicate time. They show the time an action took place.
The mailman comes to our house daily.
The boy was killed yesterday.
I can never go back to that house.
Daily, yesterday, never are three adverbs that indicate the time the actions of coming, killing, and going back takes place respectively.
Adverbs of Frequency
These adverbs shows how often something happens. Look the sentences given below.
She has already asked me about him three times.
Harry always annoys me.
My aunt has not seen our neighbor not even once.
Three times, always, once indicate how frequently an action happens. Three times show how many times she asked. Always show how often he annoys this speaker. Once shows how many times the aunt has not see the neighbor.
Adverbs of Place
Adverbs of place answer the question where. It indicates the place something happens.
Stay there by the hearth.
That dog follows that old lady everywhere.
The parson went away.
There, everywhere and away are adverbs of place. That is because they indicate a place an action takes place. Staying is done here. Following is done everywhere. Then, the parson goes away from here.
Adverbs of Manner
Adverbs of manner show in what manner a particular action is done.
She wrote the letter clearly.
They sang the song loudly.
That man has worked hard to make this meeting a success.
Clearly, loudly, and hard are three adverbs that describe the manner in which the actions of writing, singing, and working were done respectively.
Adverbs of Degree
Adverbs of degree are also known as Adverbs of Quantity. This type of adverbs show in what degree or how much or to what extent an action was done.
I am partly wrong about him.
The cake is almost baked.
The room is fully ready for the gathering.
Partly, almost, fully all indicate to what extent an action is done. Someone is partly wrong about someone else. The cake is very near to being ready as it is almost baked. The room is completely ready.
Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation
Adverbs of affirmation and negation are words that are used to affirm an action or to negate it.
You certainly went to the chapel.
They are surely lost in the woods.
I did not know it was him.
Certainly and surely are adverbs of affirmation as they affirm the facts of going to the chapel and being lost in the woods. Not, on the contrary, is an adverb of negation that shows that an action did not happen. In this case, someone did not know someone else.
Adverbs of Reason
Adverbs of reason present the reason for some action to happen.
Her mother is ill. She, therefore, could not leave her mother.
One of them tore his coat. They, thus, found their way into that shop that day.
The words therefore and thus present the reason for some action. ‘Therefore’ shows why this person cannot leave her mother. ‘Thus’ indicates how these people wound up in that shop that day.
An adverb modifies a verb. It also modifies another adverb or an adjective. There are several kinds of adverbs. They are adverbs of time, adverbs of frequency, adverbs of place, adverbs of manner, adverbs of degree, adverbs of affirmation and negation and adverbs of reason. Adverbs of Time indicate the time an action takes place. Adverbs of Frequency show how often something happen. Adverbs of Place indicate the place something happens. Adverbs of Manner show in what manner a particular action is done. Adverbs of Degree show in what degree or how much or to what extent an action is done. Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation are words that are used to affirm an action or to negate it. Adverbs of Reason present the reason for some action to happen.
- Vintage atomizer perfume bottle by Angela Andriot (CC BY-SA 3.0)
- Chapel at Eaton Hall, Cheshire, England via Wikicommons (Public Domain)