The main difference between antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance is that antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria stop to respond antibiotics, whereas antimicrobial resistance occurs when microbes, including bacteria, fungi, virus, and parasites, stops responding to antimicrobials.
Antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance are two types of drug resistance developed by microorganisms. They can cause severe microbial infections.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is Antibiotic Resistance
– Definition, Facts, Types
2. What is Antimicrobial Resistance
– Definition, Facts, Types
3. Similarities Between Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance
– Outline of Common Features
4. Difference Between Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance
– Comparison of Key Differences
Antibiotic Resistance, Antimicrobial Resistance
What is Antibiotic Resistance
Antibiotic resistance is the type of resistance developed against antibiotics. Antibiotics are powerful drugs that combat bacteria. However, the unnecessary use of antibiotics is not beneficial, and patients become susceptible to the side effects of the drugs. Also, antibiotics change the composition of infectious agents, which leads to the adaptation and mutations in the infectious bacteria. It produces new strains of bacteria that are resistant to the given antibiotic. Likewise, bacteria develop antibiotic resistance.
Further, the development of antibiotic resistance allows the resistant strains to spread to other patients, causing public health problems. The highest unnecessary antibiotics use is 50%. Also, 30% of outpatients with acute respiratory infections used unnecessary antibiotics in 2015.
Furthermore, there are four mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. They include intrinsic resistance, acquired resistance, genetic change, and DNA transfer. Bacteria might survive by changing their structures and components in intrinsic resistance. For example, penicillin cannot affect the bacteria with no cell wall. In acquired resistance, bacteria can resist an antibiotic that is previously susceptible. Here, bacteria can obtain DNA from resistant bacteria. In genetic change, bacteria change the production of proteins, leading to different bacteria components and receptors that are not recognized by antibiotics. For example, Haemophilus influenza resistance to trimethoprim. In DNA transfer, bacteria share genetic components with other bacteria, such as resistant DNA, through horizontal gene transfer. Transformation, transduction, and conjugation are the three methods of bacteria contact. For example, Staphylococcus aureus is resistant to methicillin (MRSA).
What is Antimicrobial Resistance
Antimicrobial resistance is the lack of sensitivity to antimicrobial medications. It can cause severe infections and longer recovery times. Antimicrobial resistance can occur by reaching the microorganism to the target site, attaching the target site, multiplying by taking nutrients from the host and avoiding the attack by the host’s immune system.
Moreover, antimicrobial resistance allows microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites to spread between people, animals, and plants. One of the primary reasons for the development of antimicrobial resistance is the prescribing of unnecessary antimicrobials. The use of broad-spectrum medication is another reason for developing antimicrobial resistance. Close contact in hospitals is a significant reason for the spreading of microorganisms.
Similarities Between Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance
- Antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance are two types of drug resistance important in treating microbial infections.
- Also, microbes can produce severe infections through resistance.
Difference Between Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance
Antibiotic resistance refers to a condition that occurs when bacteria evolve to evade the effect of antibiotics through multiple different mechanisms. In contrast, antimicrobial resistance is a condition that occurs when microorganisms change over time and no longer respond to medicines.
Type of Microorganisms
Bacteria undergo antibiotic resistance, while microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites undergo antimicrobial resistance.
Methods of Developing Resistance
Bacteria develop antibiotic resistance by adaptations or mutations, while microorganisms develop resistance by reaching the target site, attaching to the target site, multiplication, taking nutrients from the host, and avoiding attacks by the immune system.
In brief, antibiotic, and antimicrobial resistance are two types of drug resistance microorganisms undergo. These can cause severe microbial infections in the host. Bacteria undergo antibiotic resistance through adaptations and mutations. In comparison, microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, undergo antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial resistance occurs through reaching the target site, attaching to the target site, multiplication, taking nutrients from the host, and avoiding attacks by the immune system. Therefore, the main difference between antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance is the type of microorganism that develop resistance.
- Habboush Y, Guzman N. Antibiotic Resistance. [Updated 2023 Mar 30]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-.
- professional, C. C. medical. (n.d.-a). Antimicrobial resistance: Definition, what is IT & prevention. Cleveland Clinic.