The main difference between binucleate and dikaryotic is that binucleate is the containment of two nuclei, whereas dikaryotic is the presence of two genetically distinct nuclei inside the cell. Furthermore, binucleation more commonly occurs in cancer cells while dikaryotic cells occur during the reproductive phase of fungi, including Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. In addition to these, physiologically, binucleation occurs in hepatocytes, chondrocytes, and dikaryotic fungi while dikaryon is a condition of binucleation.
Binucleate and dikaryotic are two nuclear features that occur in different cells. Both conditions have two nuclei inside a cell.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is Binucleate
– Definition, Types of Nuclei, Examples
2. What is Dikaryotic
– Definition, Types of Nuclei, Examples
3. What are the Similarities Between Binucleate and Dikaryotic
– Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between Binucleate and Dikaryotic
– Comparison of Key Differences
Binuceate, Cancer Cells, Dikaryotic, Fungi, Nuclei
What is Binucleate
Binucleate is a condition of cells having two nuclei inside the same cell. This condition can be easily visualized in cancer cells under the microscope. The other distinguishing features of cancer cells include multipolar spindles, chromatin bridges, and micronuclei. However, binucleation also occurs in hepatocytes and chondrocytes under physiological conditions. Moreover, the four causes for binucleation are the regression of the cleavage furrow, failed cytokinesis, multipolar spindles, and merging of newly-formed cells.
Generally, binucleation has negative effects on cell viability as well as subsequent cell division. Usually, most of the binucleated cells remain in the interphase but, never enter into the mitotic phase. However, mutated cells that undergo subsequent binucleation are more prone to proceed with mitosis. Generally, 95% of the binucleated cancer cells progress through mitosis, while 50% of the normal cells with two nuclei progress through mitosis. However, the subsequent mitosis creates higher rates of mutations in chromosomal disjunctions.
What is Dikaryotic
Dikaryotic is the presence of two genetically distinct nuclei in fungi. Generally, compatible cell types from two different mating types of a fungus undergo the fusion of cytoplasm in an event called plasmogamy. Significantly, the resulting cells have two nuclei, each belonging to separate mating types. Furthermore, these nuclei cohabit the cytoplasm without undergoing fusion in a process called karyogamy. Therefore, these fungal hyphae can maintain the dikaryotic stage over generations by synchronous dividing, which passes the two nuclei to new cells in pairs.
Moreover, dikaryotic fungi are classified under the subkingdom Dikarya. Generally, this subkingdom includes the two fungal divisions: Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Here, ascogenous hyphae and ascocarp of Ascomycota are dikaryotic while the dominant phase of Basidiomycota is dikaryotic. On the other hand, the formation of structures such as croziers in Ascomycota and clamp connections in Basidiomycota facilitate the maintenance of the dikaryotic phase.
Similarities Between Binucleate and Dikaryotic
- Binucleate and dikaryotic are two conditions of nuclei in different cells.
- In both conditions, cells have two nuclei.
Difference Between Binucleate and Dikaryotic
Binucleate refers to having two nuclei inside the cell while dikaryotic refers to the presence of two genetically distinct nuclei in fungi.
Significance of Nuclei
Binucleate cells contain two nuclei which are genetically similar or dissimilar while dikaryotic cells have genetically dissimilar nuclei.
Moreover, binucleation is the presence of two nuclei in a cell ,while dikaryon is a condition of binucleation.
While binucleation more commonly occurs in cancer cells, dikaryotic cells occur during the reproductive phase of fungi ,including Basidiomycota and Ascomycota.
Binucleate cells are a type of cells with two nuclei. However, the two nuclei in the cell can be similar or dissimilar by means of genetics. Generally, binucleation is more common in cancer cells. Also, under physiological conditions, it can occur in hepatocytes, chondrocytes, and in dikaryotic fungi. Therefore, dikaryon is a condition of binucleation. Furthermore, dikaryotic cells occur during the reproductive phase of fungi ,including Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. The two nuclei in dikaryotic cells are genetically dissimilar as they originate from two different mating types of fungi. Hence, the main difference between binucleate and dikaryotic is the type of nuclei.
1. “Binucleated Cells.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 1 Mar. 2019, Available Here.
2. David Moore, Geoffrey D. Robson, and Anthony P. J. Trinci, 21st Century Guidebook to Fungi, SECOND EDITION, Available Here.