What is the Difference Between Hematology and Oncology

The main difference between hematology and oncology is that hematology is the study of the diseases related to blood, whereas oncology is the study of cancer. Therefore, hematologists study the properties of blood, while oncologists focus on cancer, which affects different body parts. 

Hematology and oncology are two branches of medicine that are related to blood cancers. Furthermore, hematologist-oncologist is a type of oncologist that diagnose and treat blood cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma. 

Key Areas Covered 

1. What is Hematology
     – Definition, Disciplines, Importance
2. What is Oncology
     – Definition, Disciplines, Importance
3. What are the Similarities Between Hematology and Oncology
     – Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between Hematology and Oncology
     – Comparison of Key Differences

Key Terms 

Blood, Cancer, Hematologist-Oncologist, Hematology, Oncology

Difference Between Hematology and Oncology - Comparison Summary

What is Hematology 

Hematology is a branch of medicine which study the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood. Therefore, this area is responsible for treating diseases that affect the production of blood and blood components, including blood cells, platelets, blood proteins, and hemoglobin. Moreover, diseases in other tissues related to blood, including bone marrow, blood vessels, and spleen, are studies in hematology. It also studies mechanisms of blood coagulation and its disorders. 

Hematology vs Oncology

Figure 1: Hematology – Blood Test

Furthermore, hematologists are the physicians specialized in hematology. Generally, they are responsible for caring and treating patients with hematological diseases, while working in hematology laboratories to view blood films and other slides under the microscope. Moreover, they interpret the results of hematological tests as well as blood coagulation tests. They treat bleeding disorders such as hemophiliaidiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and hemoglobinopathies. Further, they work in blood banks, involving in blood transfusion. They also perform bone marrow and stem cell transfusion. 

What is Oncology 

Oncology is a branch of medicine which deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer Generally, the major factors associated with cancers are tobacco (main cause for cancer), alcohol, obesity, and age. On the other hand, different parts of the body can develop cancer. Out of that, tobacco cause cancer in different parts of the respiratory system including mouth, throat, esophagus, lungs, and larynx and other organs of the body including the liver, kidney, bladder, stomach, pancreas, colon, rectum, etc. 

Difference Between Hematology and Oncology

Figure 2: Development of Cancer

Moreover, the three major areas of oncology are medical oncology, surgical oncology, and radiation oncology. Medical oncology deals with medicines for cancer, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Meanwhile, surgical oncology deals with removing tumors and nearby tissue by surgery. Additionally, surgical oncologists take biopsies for the diagnosis of cancer. Moreover, radiation oncology deals with treating cancers with radiation. Furthermore, there are other areas of oncology, including gynecologic oncology, pediatric oncology, and hematologic oncology. 

Similarities Between Hematology and Oncology 

  • Hematology and oncology are two areas of medicine. 
  • But, both study different properties of tissues. 
  • Also, they are related when studying blood cancers. 

Difference Between Hematology and Oncology 


Hematology refers to a branch of medicine involving in the study and treatment of blood disorders, while oncology refers to a branch of medicine specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Thus, this is the main difference between hematology and oncology.

Type of Tissues 

Another difference between hematology and oncology is that hematology only studies the tissues related to the blood, while oncology studies all types of tissues of the body. 

Hematologists and Oncologists 

Moreover, hematologists do not have experience about oncology, while a type of oncologists called hematologist-oncologist study about blood cancers. 


Hematology is a branch of medicine which deals with blood and related tissues such as bone marrow. Moreover, it is responsible for studying the properties of these tissues. On the other hand, oncology is another branch of medicine responsible for studying cancers and tumors in all types of tissues of the body. Besides, hematologist-oncologist is a type of oncologist that studies about cancers in blood. Therefore, the main difference between hematology and oncology is the study area. 


1. Kugler, Mary. “What Does a Hematologist Do?” Verywell Health, Verywell Health, 26 May 2019, Available Here.
2. “Types of Oncologists.” Cancer.Net, 7 Jan. 2019, Available Here.

Image Courtesy:

1. “Hematology-blood test” By Freshman404 – Own work (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia   
2. “Cancer cells illustration” By NIH Image Gallery (Public Domain) via Flickr

About the Author: Lakna

Lakna, a graduate in Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, is a Molecular Biologist and has a broad and keen interest in the discovery of nature related things. She has a keen interest in writing articles regarding science.

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