The main difference between Lisp and Prolog is that Lisp is a computer program language that supports functional, procedural, reflective and meta paradigms while Prolog is a computer programming language that supports logic programming paradigm.
Generally, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a way of making a computer, robot, software or a machine to work intelligently similar to a human. It is a discipline that covers various fields, including Mathematics, Computer Sciences, Engineering, Philosophy etc. Overall, Lisp and Prolog are two programming languages that help to write and develop AI-based applications. Furthermore, Lisp is an older language than Prolog.
Key Areas Covered
Artificial Intelligence, Lisp, Prolog
What is Lisp
Lisp is a computer programming language with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation. The programmer writes all program code in s-expressions or parenthesized lists. Furthermore, a function call or syntactic form can be written as a list with the function or operator’s name first.
Lisp is an old, high-level programming language. The main objective of using Lisp is to represent mathematical notations for computer programs. Some popular Lisp dialects are Clojure, CommonLisp and Scheme. Moreover, it also helps to develop Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications.
What is Prolog
Prolog is a logic programming language associated with AI and computational linguistics. It has its roots in first-order logic, the formal logic, unlike many other programming languages. Prolog is mainly a declarative programming language. It is possible to express the program logic as a set of relations, facts and rules. Therefore, a computation can be initiated by running a query over these relations.
Prolog was one of the first logic programming languages. It helps various tasks such as theorem proving, expert systems, term rewriting, type systems, natural language processing and automated planning. It also helps to create GUIs, administrative and networked applications. Furthermore, Prolog is suitable for rule-based logical queries such as searching databases, filling templates and voice control systems.
Difference Between Lisp and Prolog
Lisp is the second-oldest high-level programming language after FORTRAN that has changed a great deal since its early days. In contrast, Prolog is a logic programming language associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics.
Lisp supports functional, procedural, reflective and meta paradigms while Prolog supports logical programming paradigm.
John McCarthy is the designer of Lisp whereas Alain Colmerauer and Robert Kowalski are the designers of Prolog.
Moreover, Lisp first appeared in 1958, whereas Prolog first appeared in 1972.
In brief, Lisp and Prolog are popular programming languages that help to develop AI-based applications. The main difference between Lisp and Prolog is that Lisp is a computer program language that supports functional, procedural, reflective and meta paradigms while Prolog is a computer programming language that supports logic programming paradigm.