The main difference between original and mutated sequences is that original sequences do not have any mutated nucleotides or damages in DNA whereas mutated sequences may either contain nucleotide alterations or DNA damages. Furthermore, original sequences are responsible for the production of the regular protein profile of a particular organism while mutated sequences are responsible for the production of novel proteins. Thus, mutated sequences produce new phenotypes.
Original and mutated sequences are two types of nucleotide sequences which can occur in the genome of a particular organism.
Key Areas Covered
1. What are Original Sequences
– Definition, Function, Importance
2. What are Mutated Sequences
– Definition, Function, Importance
3. What are the Similarities Between Original and Mutated Sequences
– Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between Original and Mutated Sequences
– Comparison of Key Differences
Genetic Code, Mutated Sequences, Original Sequences, Phenotypes, Proteins
What are Original Sequences
Original sequences are the regular DNA sequences in an organism. These sequences are common throughout the species. They undergo transcription and translation to synthesize proteins. Here, these proteins are either enzymes, hormones or other structural and transport proteins responsible for the regular functioning of the organism.
Generally, the DNA sequences transcribed are known as genes whose nucleotide sequence encodes the information required by the production of either a functional protein or regulatory RNA. Here, the genes encoded for proteins are known as the protein-coding genes and their transcription results in the synthesis of mRNAs, later translated into the amino acid sequence of the functional protein. On the other hand, RNA genes encode the other types of RNA including tRNA, rRNA, and other small types of RNA. These RNAs are regulatory RNA responsible for the regulation of protein synthesis. Additionally, the sequences which are not encoded for gene products are known as non-coding DNA. They are responsible for maintaining the stability and the integrity of the genome.
What are Mutated Sequences
Mutated sequences are the DNA sequences of organisms that have undergone alterations of nucleotides or DNA damages. Generally, the errors in DNA replication result in mutations while external agents such as radiation or carcinogens result in DNA damages. Here, based on the effect on the nucleotide sequence, mutations can be divided into two categories: gene-level mutations and chromosomal mutations. The gene level mutations can be either nucleotide substitutions, insertions, deletions or frameshift mutations. On the other hand, chromosomal mutations are large-scale mutations that bring structural changes in chromosomes. They include gene duplications, translocations, inversions, crossover, etc. In contrast, DNA damages include chemical changes of nitrogenous bases, missing of bases, and breaks in DNA strands, etc.
Furthermore, the main importance of mutated sequences is that they are responsible for the alteration of the nucleotide sequence of genes, altering the gene product or alteration of the structure of the genome, altering the regulation of gene expression. Therefore, mutated sequences are thought to generate novel proteins, bringing altered phenotypes to the organism. Thus, this is the basis of evolution. However, not all mutations are beneficial and some of them can cause various types of genetic diseases in organisms.
Similarities Between Original and Mutated Sequences
- Original and mutated sequences are two types of DNA sequences found in the genome of a particular organism.
- They undergo the two sequential steps of protein synthesis: transcription and translation, forming gene products.
Difference Between Original and Mutated Sequences
Original sequences refer to the DNA sequences that are not subjected to mutations or DNA damages while mutated sequences refer to the DNA sequences in the genome subjected to mutations or DNA damages. Thus, this is the main difference between original and mutated sequences.
Original sequences occur in all organisms of the species while mutated sequences occur within one or several organisms of the species.
Moreover, original sequences undergo transcription and translation to produce proteins in the regular proteome while mutated sequences produce novel proteins separated to the proteins in the regular proteome. Hence, this is another difference between original and mutated sequences.
Furthermore, one other difference between original and mutated sequences is that the original sequences produce the regular phenotypes of the species while mutated sequences produce new phenotypes.
Moreover, original sequences are important for the regular functioning or organisms while mutated sequences either lead to the formation of diseases or evolution. So, this is also a difference between original and mutated sequences.
Original sequences are the regular DNA sequences in the genome of an organism. They are common to the species and are responsible for the production of regular proteins required by the function of the organism. In comparison, mutated sequences are the DNA sequences with altered nucleotide sequences or DNA damages. They are responsible for the production of novel proteins which produce new phenotypes. These phenotypes may either lead to diseases or evolution. The main difference between original and mutated sequences is the alterations in the nucleotide sequences and their importance.
1. “What Is a Genome? – Genetics Home Reference – NIH.” U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Available Here.
2. “DNA Is Constantly Changing through the Process of Mutation.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, Available Here.
1. “Gene structure eukaryote 2 annotated” By Thomas Shafee – Shafee T, Lowe R (2017). “Eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene structure”. WikiJournal of Medicine 4 (1). DOI:10.15347/wjm/2017.002. ISSN 20024436. (CC BY 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia
2. “white-fallow-deer-mutation-wild-3192013” By Katzenfee50 (Pixabay License) via Pixabay