The main difference between TCTA and ATPE is that TCTA is the T-cell leukemia translocation-altered gene protein in humans while ATPE is the ATP synthase subunit ε in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Furthermore, TCTA inhibits the human osteoclastogenesis while ATPE serves as one of the three components of the catalytic subunit of ATP synthase.
TCTA and ATPE are two distinct proteins which occur on the membranes of different structures. Moreover, TCTA is a multi-pass membrane protein while ATPE occurs in the intermembrane space.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is TCTA
– Definition, Location, Function
2. What is ATPE
– Definition, Location, Function
3. What are the Similarities Between TCTA and ATPE
– Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between TCTA and ATPE
– Comparison of Key Differences
ATP Synthase, ATPE, Catalytic Subunit, Multi-Pass Membrane Protein, TCTA
What is TCTA
TCTA (T-cell leukemia translocation-altered gene protein) is a protein expressed by humans. This protein is responsible for the negative regulation of osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast fusion. The gene encoded for this protein is also TCTA, and its chromosomal location is 3p21.31. For instance, the subcellular location of TCTA is the cell membrane. Moreover, this protein is a multi-pass membrane protein, which spans the cell membrane more than once. It has five domains.
- Extracellular topological domain (position 2-8)
- Helical transmembrane domain (position 9-26)
- Cytoplasmic topological domain (position 27-40)
- Helical transmembrane domain (position 41-61)
- Extracellular topological domain (position 62-103)
Furthermore, TCTA is a ubiquitous protein, and the highest level of expression occurs in the adult mammalian kidney. Some other expression points are monocytes, macrophages, osteoclasts, synoviocytes, and synovial lining cells. Also, the TCTA gene serves as a proto-oncogene whose chromosomal aberration can lead to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL).
What is ATPE
ATPE (ATP synthase CF1 epsilon) is a protein subunit that serves as one of the hydrophilic subunits of the enzyme, ATP synthase. This enzyme is responsible for the production of ATP from ADP in response to an electrochemical gradient. This electrochemical gradient occurs across the mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes or the cell membrane of prokaryotes due to the concentration gradient of protons. In plants, ATP synthase occurs in the thylakoid membrane.
Moreover, the two main regions of the ATP synthase are Fraction 1 (CF1) and Fraction o (CFo). The Fo region is the transmembrane subunit while the F1 region is the hydrophobic subunit located in the inter-membrane space. The five types of subunits in the F1 region are the α, β, γ, δ, and ε. Here, the latter three subunits are responsible for the catalysis of ATP synthesis through a rotational motor mechanism. Furthermore, the three subunits of the Fo region are the a, b, and c.
Similarities Between TCTA and ATPE
- TCTA and ATPE are two proteins with distinct origins and functions.
- Both proteins occur either on the cell membrane or membrane of the organelles including mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Difference Between TCTA and ATPE
TCTA refers to a protein expressed ubiquitously in normal human tissues but, its function has not been clarified while ATPE refers to a protein component of ATP synthase enzyme. These definitions explain the main difference between TCTA and ATPE.
TCTA stands for ‘T-cell leukemia translocation-altered’ gene protein while ATPE stands for ‘ATP synthase CF1 epsilon’ subunit.
Another difference between TCTA and ATPE is that TCTA occurs in humans while ATPE occurs in both eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria.
Location is also a major difference between TCTA and ATPE. TCTA is a transmembrane protein located on the cell membrane of humans while ATPE occurs in the inner membrane space of mitochondria in animals, chloroplasts in plants and cell membrane of prokaryotes.
Furthermore, TCTA contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions while ATPE is hydrophilic.
TCTA inhibits the human osteoclastogenesis while ATPE serves as one of the three catalytic subunits of ATP synthase. This is another difference between TCTA and ATPE.
In conclusion, TCTA is a transmembrane protein that occurs on the cell membrane of humans. It inhibits osteoclastogenesis. On the other hand, APTE is one of the three catalytic components of the ATP synthase in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. It occurs in the inner membrane space. Therefore, the main difference between TCTA and ATPE is the location and function.
1. “T-Cell Leukemia Translocation-Altered Gene Protein.” UniProt, European Bioinformatics Institute, Protein Information Resource, SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 12 Sept. 2018, Available Here
2. “ATP Synthase Epsilon Chain, Chloroplastic.” UniProt, European Bioinformatics Institute, Protein Information Resource, SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 7 Nov. 2018, Available Here
1. “Bonemetabolism” By Shandristhe azylean – I (Shandristhe azylean) created this work entirely by myself. (Original File:Bonemetabolism.png created by JE.at.UWOU|T. Uploaded 05:04, 17 November 2006 (UTC).) (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia
2, “Atp synthase” By Alex.X – enWiki (PDB.org for coordinate) (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia
3. “Atpsynthase” (CC BY-SA 2.5) via Commons Wikimedia
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