The main difference between animal cell and human cell is that the animal cell may have different sizes of genomes depending on the species whereas the human cell has 3 billion base pairs in its genome. Also, the number of protein-coding genes in the genome of an animal cell depends on the species while human genome consists around 25,000 protein-coding genes.
Animal cell and human cell are very similar types of cells. Both do not have a cell wall, large vacuole, as well as chloroplasts. Other organelles of both animal and human cells such as cell membrane, cytoplasm, the structure of the nucleus, small vacuoles, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are similar.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is an Animal Cell
– Definition, Structure, Facts
2. What is a Human Cell
– Definition, Structure, Facts
3. What are the Similarities Between Animal Cell and Human Cell
– Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between Animal Cell and Human Cell
– Comparison of Key Differences
Key Terms: Animal Cell, Chromosomes, Human Cell, Multicellular, Organelles
What is an Animal Cell
An animal cell is a type of eukaryotic cell with a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles. The other types of eukaryotic cells are the plant cells with a cell wall, chloroplasts, and a large vacuole. But, animal cells have neither of the above-mentioned organelles. However, both animal and plant cells share other cellular structures such as cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi, ribosomes, and ER.
The animal cell can form multicellular organisms in the kingdom Animalia such as worms, insects, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, etc. depending on the genetic information in the genome.
What is a Human Cell
Human cells are the various types of cells that collectively make up the human body. Around 210 functionally different types of cells are present in humans. Some of their functions are secretion, storage, etc.
Both human cells and animal cells are diploid, except the gametes, which are haploid. The human genome is approximately 3 billion base pairs in size. It contains around 25,000 protein-coding genes.
Similarities Between Animal Cell and Human Cell
- Animals cell and human cells do not have a cell wall, chloroplasts, and a large vacuole as in a plant cell.
- Both have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and other organelles such as mitochondria, 80S ribosomes, Golgi, and ER.
- They have an irregular-shaped cell body.
- Both are diploid and have linear chromosomes inside the nucleus.
- They form multicellular organisms.
Difference Between Animal Cell and Human Cell
Animal cell refers to a eukaryotic cell that lacks a cell wall and a large nucleus whereas human cell refers to the basic functional unit of the human body. The human cell is a type of animal cell.
Size of the Genome
Animal cell may have different size of genomes based on the species while human cell has a genome with 3 billion base pairs.
Number of Protein-Coding Genes
Animal cell may have a different number of protein-coding genes depending on the species while human cell may have around 25,000 protein-coding genes.
Animal cells can make up worm, insect, amphibian, reptile, mammal-like animals while human cells only make up a human.
Animal cell may have different sizeed genomes depending on the species while human cell has a genome with 3 billion base pairs. Also, the number of protein-coding genes in the human genome are 30,000 while that in animal cells depends on the species. Both animal cells and human cells are eukaryotic cells without a cell wall and a large vacuole. Therefore, the main difference between animal cell and human cell is the size and the composition of the genome.
1. Pray, Leslie A. “Eukaryotic Genome Complexity.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, Available Here
1. “Animal cell structure en” By LadyofHats (Mariana Ruiz) – Own work using Adobe Illustrator. Image renamed from Image:Animal cell structure.svg (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia
2. “a generalized human cell” By adrigu (CC BY 2.0) via Flickr