Main Difference – Genomics vs Proteomics
Genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics are the fields involved in the study and the classification of living things by means of their genomes, the protein products synthesized based on the genetic instructions, and the type of molecules they metabolize, respectively. Genomics and proteomics are closely-related fields. The main difference between genomics and proteomics is that genomics is the study of the entire set of genes in the genome of a cell whereas proteomics is the study of the entire set of proteins produced by the cell. Metabolomics, on the other hand, is the study of the entire set of low molecular weight compounds that serve as substrates and by-products of the enzymatic reactions of a cell.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is Genomics
– Definition, Techniques, Classification
2. What is Proteomics
– Definition, Techniques, Classification
3. What are the Similarities Between Genomics and Proteomics
– Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between Genomics and Proteomics
– Comparison of Key Differences
Key Terms: Genes, Genomics, Human Genome Project (HGP), Human Proteome Project (HPP), Proteins, Proteome, Proteomics
What is Genomics
Genomics refers to the study of the entire set of genes in a genome. The genome is the complete set of genetic information of an organism, mainly made up of DNA. High throughput techniques are used in the genomics to map, sequence, and analyze genomes. The techniques involved in genomics include gene sequencing strategies such as directed gene sequencing, whole genome shotgun sequencing, construction of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and the analysis and interpretation of sequenced data using different software and databases. The major steps of the shotgun sequencing are shown in figure 1.
The two main areas of the genomics are structural genomics and functional genomics. In structural genomics, the structure and the relative positions of the genes are studied while in functional genomics, the function or the role of the genes in the regulating metabolic activities are studied. Genome Sequencing Projects are the latest development in genomics. The Human Genome Project (HGP) was completed in 2003. The goals of the Human Genome Project were:
- To identify all the (approximately 20,000-25,000) genes in human genome,
- To determine the entire sequences (approximately 3 billion chemical base pairs) that makeup human genome,
- To store this information in databases,
- To improve tools for data analysis,
- To transfer related technologies to the private sector, and
- To address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project.
In addition to the human genome, mouse and rice genomes have also been subjected to genomic studies.
What is Proteomics
Proteomics refers to the study of the entire set of proteins produced by a cell. The proteome is the complete set of proteins produced by the cell. In proteomics, characterization of the 3D structure and the function of proteins is carried out by the use of high throughput methods. Techniques involved in proteomics include extraction and electrophoretic separation of proteins, digestion of proteins with the use of trypsin into small fragments, determination of the amino acid sequence by mass spectrometry, and identification of proteins using the information in the protein databases. Moreover, the 3D structure of the protein can be predicted using software-based methods. The expression of proteins can be studied by protein microarrays. Protein-network maps can be developed to determine protein-protein interactions. Different phenomena of proteomics are shown in figure 2.
Protein products of the genes of the human genome are studied during the Human Proteome Project (HPP). One of the main aims of the Human Proteome Project is to identify the proteins involved in the major diseases.
Similarities Between Genomics and Proteomics
- Genomics and proteomics are two closely-related scientific fields used in the study of organisms.
- High throughput techniques are used in both genomics and proteomics.
Difference Between Genomics and Proteomics
Genomics: Genomics refers to the study of the entire set of genes in a genome.
Proteomics: Proteomics refers to the study of the entire set of proteins produced by a cell.
Genomics: Genomics involves mapping, sequencing, and analysis of genomes.
Proteomics: Proteomics involves the 3D structure and function of proteins, and protein-protein interactions.
Genomics: The two types of genomics are the structural genomics and functional genomics.
Proteomics: The three types of proteomics are the structural, functional, and expression proteomics.
Genomics: Genome sequencing projects such the Human Genome Project are the important areas of genomics.
Proteomics: Proteome database developments such as SWISS-2DPAGE and software development for computer-aided drug design are the important areas of proteomics.
Genomics and proteomics are two scientific areas used in the study of organisms. Genomics is the study of the entire set of genes in an organism whereas proteomics is the study of the entire set of proteins produced by the cell. The main difference between genomics and proteomics is the criteria of each field during the study of organisms.
1. Griffiths, Anthony JF. “Genomics: an overview.” An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. 7th edition., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Jan. 1970, Available here.
2. Boundless. “Genomics and Proteomics.” Genomics and Proteomics | Boundless Biology, Available here.
3. Graves, Paul R., and Timothy A. J. Haystead. “Molecular Biologist’s Guide to Proteomics.” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, American Society for Microbiology, Mar. 2002, Available here.
1. “Environmental shotgun sequencing” By John C. Wooley, Adam Godzik, Iddo Friedberg – (CC BY 2.5) via Commons Wikimedia
2. “Proteomics” By Xxl7441 at English Wikibooks – Transferred from en.wikibooks to Commons. (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia