Main Difference – Hindi vs Urdu
Hindi and Urdu are two standardized registers of the Hindustani language. Both Hindu and Urdu belong to the Indo-European language family. Although colloquial Hindi and Urdu are mutually intelligible and share many similarities, there are some differences in their standard varieties. Both Hindi and Urdu have been influenced by Sanskrit, Persian, and Arabic. However, the extent of the influence varies in these two languages. Hindi has been heavily influenced by Sanskrit whereas Urdu shows more influence of Arabic and Persian. This is the main difference between Hindi and Urdu.
What is Urdu
Urdu is a standardized register of the Hindustani language. It is the national language as well as the lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also an official language of six states of India.
Although it is considered as a language belonging to the Indo-European language family; however, it is heavily influenced by the Arabic and Persian languages. It is because of this influence that Urdu is usually associated with Muslims. This influence can be still seen, especially in literary Urdu. However, the Urdu language also has historical roots in Sanskrit. It is accurate to say that Urdu vocabulary is largely made up of Sanskrit, Persian, and Arabic. Urdu is mutually intelligible with standard Hindi. Therefore, many Hindi speakers would also understand Urdu.
Urdu is written in the Nastaliq style of the Persian alphabet. This is written from right to left. The script of the two languages is a major difference between Hindi and Urdu.
What is Hindi
Hindi is also a standardized register of the Hindustani language. It is the most commonly used official language in India. Although it is native to North and North Western India, it is the lingua franca of Hindi belt languages.
Hindi is considered to be a direct descendant of Sanskrit; therefore, Sanskrit influence can be noted extensively in Hindi. It has also been influenced by Dravidian languages, Turkish, Persian, Arabic, etc. Hindi is written in the Devanagari script; this script is written from left to right. Just as Urdu is associated with Muslims, Hindi is associated with Hindu people. Hindi supposed to be the fourth-most natively spoken language in the world.
Difference Between Hindi and Urdu
Hindi is the most commonly used official language in India.
Urdu is the national language and the lingua franca of Pakistan.
Hindi is associated with India and Hindus.
Urdu is associated with Pakistan and Muslims.
Influence of other languages
Hindi is heavily influenced by Sanskrit.
Urdu is heavily influenced by Persian, Arabic,Sanskrit.
Hindi is written in Devanagari script.
Urdu is written in the Nastaliq style of the Persian alphabet.
Hindi is written from left to right.
Urdu is written from right to left.
Hindi has more native speakers than Urdu.
Urdu has less native speakers than Hindi.
Hindi vocabulary is heavily influenced by Sanskrit.
Urdu vocabulary is heavily influenced by Persian and Arabic.
“Diwan-e-Ghalib Muraq-e-Chugtai, 1927″ By Mirza GhalibAbdur Rahman Chughtai – Copy of Urdu book, Diwan-e-Ghalib Muraq-e-Chughtaipoetry by Urdu poet Mirza Ghalibpaintings by artist Abdur Rahman Ghughtai published in Lahore, British India, 1927 Scan, splicing and crop by Fowler & fowler (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia
“Information board in Hindi at Observatory of Man Singh” By Nandanupadhyay – Own work, (CC-BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia