India is the largest democracy in the world, and it has a parliamentary system in place that is bicameral in nature at the central level. There are 28 states in India that have their own elected governments. Most of the Indian states also have a bicameral legislature with legislative assemblies and legislative councils. The central government is also known as Union government, and it is formed by a political party or alliance that has at least 272 seats in the 545 member parliament. The leader of the political party or alliance that has the majority in parliament is also the leader of the government and he is called the Prime Minister. Many people wonder how government is formed in India as they are not aware of the electoral process in the largest democracy of the world. This article explains how the government is formed in India.
Form of Government in India
President is the executive head of state and Prime is the head of government in India
Executive head of the state in India is the President who is a titular or ceremonial head while the real power vests in the Prime Minister who heads the government. It is the Prime Minister who forms the government from his own party or from the alliance partners that can come from Lok Sabha (Lower House or the House of People) or the Rajya Sabha (Council of States or the Upper House). The members of the upper house are elected by the state legislatures and the President nominates some of them. It is the lower house or the Lok Sabha that is more important, and the members to this house are elected directly by the people of India through general elections that are conducted by the Election Commission of India.
How Government is formed in India
Election Commission conducts general elections in India
Election Commission is a statutory body that has the responsibility of conducting free and fair elections in all constituencies across India. Model code of conduct comes into place as soon as the Election Commission announces the dates of election. The Election Commission has the power to cancel the candidature of an individual if he violates this model code of conduct. The formation of the government in India begins after the completion of general elections that take place every five years or earlier depending upon the term of the government. If the government falls before the expiry of its term, President’s rule is imposed in the country till elections take place and a new government comes into place.
Prime Minister chooses his council of ministers
It is the prerogative of the Prime Minister to select cabinet ministers and ministers of state as part of his government. Though the executive power is vested in the President of India as per Article 53 of the constitution, he is bound to act in according to the advice tendered to him by the Prime Minister and his cabinet as per Article 74 of the constitution of India. This council of ministers remains in power during the pleasure of the President but in practice, he cannot dismiss the government as long as it enjoys the support of the majority in the Lok Sabha.
The elected government implements its policies and programs for the development of the people and the regions of the country with the help of the bureaucratic machinery in place.