‘What is India’s climate like’ is a question doing rounds in the minds of all the people who are planning to visit this great country that lies in south Asia. India is such a large country that it is described as the Indian subcontinent. Climate in India is governed by monsoon, rain bearing winds that bring relief to the people from hot and humid climate during the summer season. There are in general three main seasons in India that can be classified as hot and dry (summer), hot and wet (monsoon), and finally cool and dry (winter). This article attempts to explain the climate of India in easy terms.
Climate of India – Tropical Monsoon
The climate of India is described as tropical monsoon. Monsoon is a word that is used to refer to a reversal of winds during seasons. The monsoon brings rainfall all across India to signal the end of a hot and dry season. Indian climate is influenced to a great degree by monsoon.
India’s Climate and Position of Mountain Ranges
Another geographical feature that determines the climate of India is the position of the mountain ranges. One major characteristic of India’s climate is alternating seasons.The position of the Himalayas on the northern border of the country prevents the cold winds from the north of Asia from entering into the country by forming a barrier. These mountains also force the monsoon winds to shed all their moisture within the country by trapping them inside the country. The climate of a geographical region in India is determined by its proximity to the mountains and the coastline. Thus, places in India that are close to the Himalayas experience cold and dry climate while regions that are located close to the coastline experience hot and humid climate.
India’s Climate and the Three Major Seasons in India
Most parts of India experience three major seasons that are summer, monsoon, and winter.
• Summer starts from March and lasts till May. This is the time of the year when the climate is hot and dry and most regions experience high temperatures.
• Monsoon starts with the burst of rainfall with the entry of monsoon winds from the southern state of Kerala. This season starts from mid-June and lasts till the end of September. Temperatures remain high, but rainfall brings relief to the people.
• The ending of Monsoon signals the setting of the winter season that starts from mid-October and lasts till the end of February. It is during this period that monsoon retreats and the climate is influenced by cold winds blowing from the mountains in the north of India.
Climate of different regions in India
• Assam experiences tropical rainforest type of climate.
• Maharashtra experiences tropical savannah type of climate.
• Punjab and Gujrat experience tropical and subtropical steppe type of climate.
• Rajasthan experiences tropical desert type of climate.
• J&K, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttaranchal experience mountain climate.
• Some parts of Gujarat and Rajasthan and Haryta experience draught climate.
• Tamil Nadu and other southern states experience tropical semi-arid steppe climate.