What is the Difference Between Cleavage Furrow and Cell Plate

The main difference between cleavage furrow and cell plate is that cleavage furrow occurs in plant cells during cytokinesis, whereas cell plate occurs in animal cells during cytokinesis.

Cleavage furrows and cell plates are two types of structures that occur in cells during cell division. Both occur during the cytokinesis of cell division.

Key Areas Covered

1. What is Cleavage Furrow
     – Definition, Structure, Function
2. What is Cell Plate
     – Definition, Structure, Function
3. Similarities Between Cleavage Furrow and Cell Plate
     – Outline of Common Features
4. Difference Between Cleavage Furrow and Cell Plate
     – Comparison of Key Differences

Key Terms

Cell Plate, Cleavage FurrowCleavage Furrow vs Cell Plate - Comparison Summary

What is Cleavage Furrow

A cleavage furrow is a structure that appears in the center of an animal cell during cytokinesis. Generally, it forms after the anaphase of cell division. The main function of the cleavage furrow is to separate the dividing cell into two daughter cells. Cytokinesis is the cytoplasm’s division, completely separating the cell into two daughter cells. In addition, cleavage furrow formation occurs through the formation of a contractile ring composed of actin and myosin filaments. It occurs just inside the plasma membrane in the middle of the cell.

Compare Cleavage Furrow and Cell Plate - What's the difference?

Figure 1: Cleavage Furrow

Furthermore, the actin and myosin filaments are responsible for inwardly pulling the equator of the cell. Therefore, the plasma membrane invaginates with the invaginating contractile ring. When the cell membrane completely separates into two cells, cell division becomes complete.

What is a Cell Plate

The cell plate is the structure that forms during the cytokinesis of plant cells. It occurs during the interphase of cell division. During the formation of the cell plate, the Golgi apparatus accumulates glucose molecules, structural proteins, and certain enzymes producing vesicles. 

Cleavage Furrow vs Cell Plate

Figure 2: Cell Plate

In general, these vesicles disperse throughout the dividing cell. Then, Golgi vesicles are transported on microtubules forming phragmoplast. Here, the formation of the phragmoplast occurs during telophase. Moreover, Golgi vesicles fuse and come together from the center towards the cell wall forming the cell plate.

Similarities Between Cleavage Furrow and Cell Plate

  • Cleavage furrows and cell plates are two types of structures that occur during the cytokinesis of cells.
  • Cytokinesis is a step that occurs during cell division.
  • The main function of these structures is to separate the parent cell into two daughter cells.

Difference Between Cleavage Furrow and Cell Plate

Definition

Cleavage furrow refers to an indentation that appears on a cell’s surface when the cell is preparing to divide, while a cell plate refers to a plate that develops at the midpoint between the two groups of chromosomes in a dividing cell.

Type of Cells

Cleavage furrow occurs in animal cells, while cell plate occurs in plant cells.

Time Frame

While cleavage furrow occurs following the anaphase, cell plate occurs following the interphase.

Occurrence

A contractile ring forms inside the plasma membrane in the middle of the cell in a cleavage furrow while the Golgi apparatus accumulates several enzymes, glucose molecules, and structural proteins, forming Golgi vesicles to transport microtubules to form a phragmoplast in the cell plate.

Formation

Filaments in the contractile ring contract the cell membrane to form new cells in the cleavage furrow while Golgi vesicles fuse, forming the cell wall in the cell plate. 

Conclusion

In brief, cleavage furrows and cell plates are two types of structures that form during cytokinesis. Generally, cleavage furrow occurs in animal cells following the anaphase. A contractile ring forms inside the plasma membrane in the middle of the cell. In general, the filaments of the contractile ring contract the cell membrane forming the two cells. On the other hand, cell plate occurs in the cytokinesis of plant cells following the interphase. Normally, enzymes, glucose molecules, and structural proteins collectively form Golgi vesicles transporting microtubules to the phragmoplast in the cell plate. The fusion of Golgi vesicles forms the cell wall separating the two cells. Therefore, the main difference between cleavage furrow and cell plate is their formation.

References:
  1. Biology for majors I. Lumen. Retrieved April 11, 2023
Image Courtesy:
  1. Unk.cilliate” By TheAlphaWolf – Own work (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia
  2. Phragmoplast” By Tameeria at English Wikipedia – Own Work (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia

About the Author: Lakna

Lakna, a graduate in Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, is a Molecular Biologist and has a broad and keen interest in the discovery of nature related things

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