The main difference between cristae and cisternae is that cristae are the foldings of the inner mitochondrial membrane, enclosing mitochondrial matrix, whereas cisternae are the flattened structures, which make up Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. Cristae give a signature wrinkled shape to the inner membrane of the mitochondria while Golgi apparatus contains around 3-20 cisternae. Further, cristae contain proteins, including ATP synthase and a range of cytochromes, while cisternae contain different types of enzymes inside them.
Cristae and cisternae are two structures that occur in different types of organelles. However, they have different structures and functions inside the cell.
Key Areas Covered
1. What are Cristae
– Definition, Structure, Function
2. What are Cisternae
– Definition, Structure, Function
3. What are the Similarities Between Cristae and Cisternae
– Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between Cristae and Cisternae
– Comparison of Key Differences
Cisternae, Cristae, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Mitochondria
What are Cristae
Cristae are the foldings of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They give a characteristic wrinkled shape, which provides a large amount of surface area to facilitate the occurrence of chemical reactions. Moreover, cristae contain proteins such as ATP synthase and a number of cytochromes, essential for the aerobic cellular respiration. Therefore, the main function of cristae is to undergo an electron transport chain.
Furthermore, in the electron transport chain, NADH is oxidized into NAD+, H+ ions, and electrons. FADH2 is oxidized into FAD, H+ ions, and electrons. All enzymes needed for these oxidation reactions occur in the cristae. Finally, these electrons travel through the cytochromes of the cristae while releasing energy to the hydrogen pumps. Eventually, this will create an electrochemical gradient, which causes chemiosmosis, converting ADP into ATP by the action of ATP synthase.
What are Cisternae
Cisternae are the flattened membrane disks that occur in the endoplasmic reticulum as well as the Golgi apparatus. Generally, the Golgi apparatus contains 3-20 cisternae. However, most of the Golgi apparatus contains six cisternae. Moreover, there are four classes of Golgi cisternae. They are cis, medial, trans, and trans-Golgi network (TGN). All of them contain different types of enzymes. Furthermore, the main function of cisternae is to pack and modify proteins and polysaccharides. Basically, compounds enter into the Golgi apparatus from the cis face exit from the trans face after packaging occurs.
Moreover, the function of cisternae changes based on the stage of maturation. Generally, the main function of the immature cisternae is to receive COPII vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, COPII vesicles coat proteins to be transported from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. Therefore, this may form new cisternae. The next stage is the swapping stage of the materials of carbohydrate synthesis via COPI vesicles. At this stage, both polysaccharides synthesis and glycosylation occur. Finally, the mature stage occurs when the cargo proteins move into the transport carriers, which disassemble from cisternae.
Similarities Between Cristae and Cisternae
- Cristae and cisternae are two types of structures in different organelles of the cell.
- Moreover, they have different functions based on the type of organelle.
Difference Between Cristae and Cisternae
Cristae refer to each of the partial partitions in a mitochondrion formed by infolding of the inner membrane while cisternae refer to the flattened membrane disk of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.
Moreover, cristae give a signature, wrinkled shape to the inner membrane of the mitochondria while Golgi apparatus contains around 3-20 cisternae.
While cristae contain proteins, including ATP synthase and a range of cytochromes, cisternae contain different types of enzymes inside them.
In brief, cristae are the wrinkled-shape inner membrane of the mitochondria that contain proteins including ATP synthase and a range of cytochromes. On the other hand, cisternae are the flattened membrane disks of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Generally, the Golgi apparatus contains 3-20 cisternae, containing different types of enzymes inside it. Therefore, the main difference between cristae and cisternae is their structure and function.
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2. Huang, Shijiao, and Yanzhuang Wang. “Golgi structure formation, function, and post-translational modifications in mammalian cells.” F1000Research vol. 6 2050. 27 Nov. 2017, doi:10.12688/f1000research.11900.1