The main difference between genetic testing and genetic screening is that genetic testing focuses more on individuals, whereas genetic screening focuses more on populations.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is Genetic Testing
– Definition, Features, Importance
2. What is Genetic Screening
– Definition, Features, Importance
3. Similarities Between Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening
– Outline of Common Features
4. Difference Between Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening
– Comparison of Key Differences
Genetic Screening, Genetic Testing, Gene Tests, Chromosomal Genetic Tests, Protein Tests
What is Genetic Testing
Genetic testing is the study of a person’s DNA in order to identify genetic differences and susceptibility to particular diseases and abnormalities. Therefore, it identifies the changes in the DNA sequence as well as the structure of chromosomes. There are three types of genetic tests. They are tests on genes, chromosomes, and proteins. The gene tests study the DNA sequence in order to identify variations or mutations in genes that increase the risk of genetic diseases and sequences that cause genetic disorders. They may have large or narrow scopes by studying the nucleotides and one or more genes or all DNA of a person or the genome.
Furthermore, chromosomal genetic tests study the whole chromosome length, extra copies of chromosomes, large genetic changes in chromosomes, and the structure of the chromosomes. The changes in chromosome number, length, and structure can cause genetic disorders. On the other hand, biochemical genetic studies test proteins or enzymes, their amounts, and structure that can cause genetic disorders. There are over 77,000 genetic tests that study genes, chromosomes, and proteins for genetic disorders.
What is Genetic Screening
Genetic screening is the process of studying a population for genetic diseases in order to identify subgroups in the population who have a particular genetic disorder. It also determines the potential of passing genetic disorders to the offspring. Moreover, genetic screening identifies subgroups of populations from a large population with genetic disorders. These small subgroups of populations may have a higher risk for a particular genetic disorder, having a genetic disorder already, or developing the disorder. In addition, there should be a potential to pass that genetic disorder from parents to the offspring.
In comparison, genetic tests involve the determination of a presence of a genetic disorder in a particular individual in the population. While the whole population needs to be tested for genetic screening of a particular disease, in genetic testing, only a single person is tested for a particular genetic disorder.
Similarities Between Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening
- Genetic testing and genetic screening are two types of tests that are done on our DNA.
- Both determine the presence of genetic diseases in people.
Difference Between Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening
Genetic testing refers to the gene tests that study DNA sequences to identify variations (mutations) in genes that can cause or increase the risk of a genetic disorder, while genetic screening refers to the study of a person’s DNA in order to identify genetic differences or susceptibility to particular diseases or abnormalities in populations.
Genetic testing determines genetic diseases in individuals, while genetic screening determines genetic diseases in populations.
While genetic testing is important for diagnosing diseases, genetic screening is important for population studies.
In brief, genetic testing and genetic screening are two types of tests that are done on a person’s DNA. They are important for the identification of genetic diseases. Genetic testing is done on individuals to test the presence of genetic diseases. It is important for diagnosing diseases in individuals. In comparison, genetic screening is the test of genetic diseases in a population’s DNA. It is important in population studies. Therefore, the main difference between genetic testing and genetic screening is the type of study.
- “What is genetic testing?” MedlinePlus Genetics. National Library of Medicine.
- “Genetic screening.” Genome.gov.
- “Autosomal dominant inheritance for structural protein” By Mikael Häggström – Own work (CC0) via Commons Wikimedia
- “Figure 13 01 05” By CNX OpenStax – Own Work (CC-BY 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia