The main difference between structural and functional genomics is that structural genomics determines the physical nature of genomes, including sequencing and mapping of genomes, whereas functional genomics studies the expression, interactions, and function of genomes.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is Structural Genomics
– Definition, Features, Importance
2. What is Functional Genomics
– Definition, Features, Importance
3. Similarities Between Structural and Functional Genomics
– Outline of Common Features
4. Difference Between Structural and Functional Genomics
– Comparison of Key Differences
Functional Genomics, Structural Genomics
What is Structural Genomics
Structural genomics is a subfield of genomics that describes the 3-dimensional structure of proteins encoded by the genome. It uses high-throughput methods of structure determination by experimental and modeling approaches. Also, it aims to predict all gene structures in the genome rather than focusing on a single protein structure determination. Additionally, it is easy to determine the structure of proteins due to the availability of large sequence data of genomes. Further, protein structure is closely linked to the function of the protein. Therefore, structural genomics has the potential to determine the role of the protein as well.
Furthermore, structural genomics is essential for the identification of novel protein folds. Therefore, it has the potential to involve in novel drug discovery. Importantly, it uses a large number of approaches for the determination of the structure of proteins. They include genome sequencing, mapping, modeling, structural homology, chemical and physical properties of proteins, etc. Structural bioinformatics is a new challenge in structural genomics, determining the protein’s function based on the structure.
What is Functional Genomics
Functional genomics is another subfield of genomics that determines genes’ function and interactions. It uses data generated by genomic and transcriptomic projects, including genome sequencing projects, RNA sequencing, etc. It focuses on dynamic approaches, including transcription, translation, gene expression regulation, protein-protein interactions, etc., compared to the genomic information, including genomic sequencing and structure. Also, it uses high-throughput methods to determine the function of genes rather than candidate-gene methods.
Moreover, the main goal of functional genomics is to determine the function of genes and all other components of the genome. Also, it studies the biochemical, cellular, and physiological properties of each element of the genome, including genes and intergenic regions. Additionally, it studies genetic variations over time during the development and mutations of the genome. Compared to the study of the structure and function of a single gene, functional genomics generates genomic and proteomic knowledge, giving a more complete picture of the genome.
Similarities Between Structural and Functional Genomics
- Structural and functional genomics are two subfields of genomics.
- They study the genetic and epigenetic information in the genome.
Difference Between Structural and Functional Genomics
Structural genomics refers to the field which describes the 3-dimensional structure of each and every protein encoded by the genome. In contrast, functional genomics refers to the study of how genes and intergenic regions of the genome contribute to different biological processes.
Structural genomics determines the physical nature of genomes, including sequencing and mapping of genomes, while functional genomics studies the expression, interactions, and function of genomes.
Structural genomics identifies novel protein folds and their 3-dimensional structure, while functional genomics determines the function of genes and non-gene sequences in the genome.
In brief, structural and functional genomics are two subfields of genomics. They are important in studying genetic and epigenetic information of the genome. Structural genomics studies the 3-dimensional structure of proteins encoded by the genome. Also, it reveals the physical nature of genomes, including nucleotide sequences and genome maps. Additionally, structural genomics identifies novel protein folds and their 3-dimensional structure. In comparison, functional genomics studies the function of genes and intergenic regions of the genome by their expression and interactions. Therefore, it determines the role of genes and non-genic regions of the genome. Hence, the main difference between structural and functional genomics is their importance.
- Tamang, S. (2023, June 17). Genomics (structural and functional): Methods, uses. The Biology Notes. https://thebiologynotes.com/genomics/
- “Argonne’s Midwest Center for Structural Genomics deposits 1,000th protein structure” By Matt Howard – Own work (CC-BY SA 2.0) via Commons Wikimedia
- “Deep Mutational Scan” By Daniel Melamed, David L. Young, Christina R. Miller, Stanley Fields – Own Work (CC-BY 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia