The main difference between Tyler and Wheeler model of curriculum is that Tyler model of curriculum is a linear model while Wheeler model of curriculum is a cyclic model.
Tyler model and Wheeler model are two models for curriculum development. Tyler model is a linear model containing four basic components. Although it is an old model, it is still commonly used in curriculum development. Wheeler model, on the other hand, is a cyclic model based on Tyle model. According to this model, curriculum development is a continuous cycle which is responsive to changes in the education sector.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is Tyler Model of Curriculum
– Definition, Features
2. What is Wheeler Model of Curriculum
– Definition, Features
3. What is the Difference Between Tyler and Wheeler Model of Curriculum
– Comparison of Key Differences
Objective Model, Tyler Model of Curriculum, Wheeler Model of Curriculum
What is Tyler Model of Curriculum
Tyler Model of Curriculum was developed by the American educator Ralph Tyler in the 1940s. He introduced this method of curriculum development in his book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. It was one of the first models of curricula and a very simple model even used by modern educators.
Tyler model of curriculum describes how to formulate educational objectives, how to organise them, analyse them and adjust them so that the students are able to meet these objectives. Basically, Tyler presented his curriculum rationale as four questions:
- What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
- What educational experiences can be provided that will likely attain these purposes?
- How can these educational experiences be effectively organised?
- How can we determine whether the purposes are being attained?
According to Tylor, in developing any curriculum should involve answering these four questions. Moreover, this model is linear in nature, and objectives form the basic component in the curriculum development. Moreover, objectives are the basis for the selection and organisation of learning experiences, and they form the basis for assessing the curriculum. Furthermore, objectives are derived from the learner, contemporary life and subject specialist. Thus, we also call this model the objective model.
We can also re-formulate these four questions into four principles as follows:
- Defining appropriate learning objectives
- Establishing useful learning experiences
- Organising learning experiences to have a maximum cumulative effect
- Evaluating the curriculum and revising the aspects that did not prove to be effective
What is Wheeler Model of Curriculum
Wheeler model of curriculum development is a type of model that indicates curriculum development is a continuous cycle. According to this model, curriculum development should be responsive to changes in the education sector and make appropriate modifications to account for these changes. Moreover, this model targets situational evaluation; this is because the context within which the curriculum decisions are taken is considered important. This practice can help make the most effective decisions.
This model includes five interconnected phases:
- Aims, goals, and objectives
- Learning experiences
- Selection of content
- Organisation and integration of learning experiences and content
Once this cycle is complete, it starts again from the first step and goes onward, continuingly improving the curriculum. Wheeler model has both advantages and disadvantages.
Wheeler model takes new information into account, has a feedback mechanism, view elements of curriculum as interconnected phases, and emphasise on situational analysis. These are the main advantages of Wheeler model. However, Wheeler model is also time-consuming and can be difficult to put into practice.
Difference Between Tyler and Wheeler Model of Curriculum
Tyler model of curriculum was developed by the American educator Ralph Tyler in the 1940s while Wheeler model is a cyclic model of curriculum developed by D. K. Wheeler in 1967.
Tyler model is linear while Wheeler model is cyclic.
Tyler model has four main components: objectives, selection of learning experiences, organisation of learning experiences, and evaluation. Wheeler model, on the other hand, has five phases: aims, goals, and objectives, learning experiences, selection of content, organisation and integration of learning experiences and content, and evaluation.
Although both models have an evaluation phase, in Tyler’s model, evaluation is terminal since it is the last phase in a linear model, but the evaluation is Wheeler model is not terminal. However, in the Wheeler model, the feedback from the evaluation phase is fed back into objective and goals.
Content and Learning Experience
In the Tyler model, there is no separate component as content while in the Wheeler model, content is separated from learning experiences from which it’s developed.
In brief, the Tyler model is a linear model containing four main components: objectives, selection of learning experiences, organisation of learning experiences, and evaluation. Wheeler model, on the other hand, is a cyclic model with five phases: aims, goals, and objectives, learning experiences, selection of content, organisation and integration of learning experiences and content, and evaluation. Hence, this is the main difference between Tyler and Wheeler model of curriculum.