Education is provided by both private as well as public sectors in India with standards of education set by government authorities. Education is a fundamental right of the kids and every child between the ages of 6-14 is entitled to the right to education under Indian constitution. Education system in India is the second largest in the world after China.
The education system in India
School education system in India
School education was a state subject in Indian constitution until 1976 when it was brought under the concurrent list with both the central and state governments deciding on education programs and policies. The National Council for education Research and Training (NCERT) prepares the framework for school education while states have their own SCERT’s.
There are four levels of education in the school education system in India.
• Lower primary (6-10 years of age)
• Upper primary (11-12 years of age)
• High (13-15 years of age)
• Higher secondary (17-18 years of age)
Till they complete their higher secondary, all students have to go through the same curriculum with some minor changes at state levels. Education is imparted in Hindi or English medium and all students have to learn their mother tongue, Hindi, and English.
CBSE and ICSE are two main education boards in India
There are primarily two schemes of education namely CBSE and ICSE in India. CBSE stands for Central Board of Secondary Education while ICSE stands for Indian Certificate of Secondary Education. Both these boards have equal importance and acceptance of students passing through their exams at secondary and higher secondary levels. There are some differences in syllabus and curriculums of these two boards and there are schools (both government as well as private) that are affiliated to either of these two boards of education. In addition, there are state education boards that conduct their examinations and issue certificates to passing students.
College education system in India
After passing their 10 and 10+2 level examinations conducted by these two boards and their state boards (one of the three), students can go in for higher education through degree courses in colleges and universities. There are a few central universities and also private universities imparting quality education in India. Any student can pursue his undergraduate and post graduate level degree courses in humanities and science subjects in these universities as well as in colleges affiliated with these universities. One can even pursue doctorate level courses in these universities and some colleges to become scientists, research scholars, and teachers in their chosen field of specialization.
Higher education system in India – Engineering, Medical, and Management courses
For those seeking higher education in engineering, medical or administration streams, there are engineering colleges at the state and regional levels, the IITs, NIIs, management colleges, IIMs, and medical colleges throughout the country. There are competitive exams for students desirous of pursuing engineering, medical, and management level degree courses and seats are filled on merit only. There is a reservation system prevalent in India that reserves seats for students belonging to scheduled casts, scheduled tribes and other backward classes.