The main difference between cytoplasm and cytoplasmic matrix is that cytoplasm is the colorless, viscous fluid containing all the cell organelles, whereas cytoplasmic matrix is the insoluble, gel-like matrix present in the cell.
Cytoplasm and cytoplasmic matrix are two types of components of the cell. They surround the cell organelles, allowing most of the cell’s metabolic reactions.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is Cytoplasm
– Definition, Structure, Function
2. What is Cytoplasmic Matrix
– Definition, Structure, Function
3. Similarities Between Cytoplasm and Cytoplasmic Matrix
– Outline of Common Features
4. Difference Between Cytoplasm and Cytoplasmic Matrix
– Comparison of Key Differences
Cytoplasm, Cytoplasmic Matrix
What is Cytoplasm
The cytoplasm is a cell’s component surrounded by the cell membrane. It is composed of cytosol, cell organelles, and cytoplasmic inclusions. Organelles in the cytoplasm include the nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and in plant cells, vacuoles, and chloroplasts. Moreover, some insoluble particles suspended in the cytoplasm are called cytoplasmic inclusions. Additionally, particles like calcium oxalate, granules like starch and glycogen, and lipid droplets are inclusions in the cytoplasm. In prokaryotes, all the cellular structures are embedded in the cytoplasm.
Furthermore, the cytoplasm involves extensively in cellular activities like glycolysis and nuclear division. The solid glass structure of the cytoplasm freezes large organelles in place. It is also involved in cytokinesis, which is the process of cytoplasm division followed by nuclear division. Cell signaling is another function of the cytoplasm.
What is Cytoplasmic Matrix
The cytoplasmic matrix is the liquid inside the cell separated into compartments by membranes. Another name for the cytoplasmic matrix is the cytosol. The cytoplasmic matrix comprises water, small and large soluble molecules, and dissolved ions. It dissolves non-protein molecules that are less than 300 Da in size. In the plant cell cytoplasm, around 200,000 different small molecules can be dissolved in the cytoplasm. Water makes up about 70% of the cytosol’s total volume. Thus, the pH of the cytoplasmic matrix ranges from 7.0-7.4. The viscosity is also similar to water. But, the diffusion through the cytoplasmic matrix can be fourfold slow for small molecules. Water constantly enters the cytoplasmic matrix by osmosis. The concentration of the calcium ions in the cytoplasmic matrix is as low as <0.0002 mM, allowing the calcium ions to perform as a second messenger in signaling pathways.
Moreover, the cytoplasmic matrix contributes to the signal transduction starting from the cell membrane to the effective site, mainly the nucleus. The cytosol facilitates the place-to-place transportation of metabolites. Amino acids, like small soluble molecules, freely diffuse from the cytosol. Large hydrophobic molecules like sterols and fatty acids are transported via binding to specific proteins. The molecules subjected to endocytosis are transported via vesicles in the cytosol. Prokaryotic metabolism also occurs in the cytosol. In animals, translation, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and gluconeogenesis happen in the cytoplasm.
Similarities Between Cytoplasm and Cytoplasmic Matrix
- Cytoplasm and cytoplasmic matrix are two types of components of the cell.
- They surround organelles in the cell, allowing most of the metabolic reactions to occur.
- Also, it determines the cell’s shape, locomotion, and forming pseudopodia.
Difference Between Cytoplasm and Cytoplasmic Matrix
Cytoplasm refers to the fluid inside a cell but outside the cell’s nucleus, while cytoplasmic matrix refers to a colloidal substance that is colorless or greyish, transparent, viscous, gelatinous, or jelly-like.
The cytoplasm comprises 80% of water, nucleic acids, enzymes, lipids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and non-inorganic ions. Meanwhile, the cytoplasmic matrix comprises water, soluble ions, small and large water-soluble molecules, and proteins.
While the diversity of the components is high in the cytoplasm, the diversity of the components is low in the cytoplasmic matrix.
The cytoplasm is involved in extensive cellular activities like glycolysis, signal transduction, and cell division, while all the metabolic reactions occur in the cytoplasmic matrix in prokaryotes.
The cytoplasm freezes organelles in place, ensuring efficient metabolism, while the cytoplasmic matrix concentrates its dissolved molecules into the correct positions for efficient metabolism.
In brief, cytoplasm and cytoplasmic matrix are two cellular components surrounding organelles. Cytoplasm is the fluid inside the cell composed of 80% water, nucleic acids, enzymes, lipids, carbohydrates, and non-inorganic ions. It involves cellular activities like glycolysis, signal transduction, and cell division. In comparison, the cytoplasmic matrix is a colloidal substance that is colorless and jelly-like. It contains water, soluble ions, proteins, and other water-soluble molecules. Its function is the efficient metabolism in the cell. Therefore, the main difference between cytoplasm and cytoplasmic matrix is the structure and function.
- “Cytoplasm.” Genome.gov. (n.d.-a).
- “Cytoplasmic matrix – definition, structure, properties.” Microbiology Note – Online Biology Notes.