The main difference between glycated and glycosylated hemoglobin is that glycated hemoglobin is formed when glucose molecules irreversibly bind with hemoglobin molecules in a non-enzymatic process, whereas glycosylated hemoglobin is formed when glucose molecules bind to the hemoglobin molecule enzymatically.
Glycated and glycosylated hemoglobins form when glucose molecules bind with hemoglobin in the bloodstream. Understanding the difference between glycated and glycosylated hemoglobin is crucial for healthcare professionals, especially those involved in the management of diabetes.
Key Areas Covered
1. What are Glycated Hemoglobins
– Definition, Formation, Use
2. What are Glycosylated Hemoglobins
– Definition, Formation, Use
3. Difference Between Glycated and Glycosylated Hemoglobin
– Comparison of Key Differences
Glycated Hemoglobin, Glycosylated Hemoglobin
What are Glycated Hemoglobins
Glycated hemoglobins are hemoglobin molecules with glucose bound to them in a non-enzymatic pathway. Some other names for glycated hemoglobin are HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c, or A1c. Monosaccharides like fructose, glucose, and galactose are examples of sugar molecules that can bond with hemoglobin. Glycated hemoglobins are a clinical marker for diabetes. The level of HbA1c can determine the average blood sugar levels over the past weeks or months. The higher the level of HbA1c, the higher the risk of developing diabetes. Hence, HbA1c is an important tool for monitoring and managing diabetes.
When the body processes sugar, the glucose levels in the blood increase. Then they naturally attach to hemoglobin molecules. The amount of glucose that combines with this hemoglobin is directly proportional to the amount of glucose in the blood or blood glucose level. The blood glucose level is the concentration of glucose in the blood at that particular time (at the time of the test). You can obtain HbA1c readings from a blood sample taken from your finger or your arm. If an HbA1c reading is high, that means the blood glucose level is also higher. Meanwhile, lower HbA1c levels indicate a better control of sugar levels. The level of HbA1c varies depending on various factors. Some of them are diabetes complications, health, age, etc.
What are Glycosylated Hemoglobins
Glycosylated hemoglobins are hemoglobins that form by the binding of glucose molecules to hemoglobin molecules through an enzymatic pathway. In more detail, they form when a ketoamine reaction occurs between the N(nitrogen) end of the amino acid of the beta chain of hemoglobin. Another name for glycosylated hemoglobins is glycohemoglobins. Here, the amount of glycohemoglobin is directly proportional to the mean blood glucose level during the 8-10 weeks before the relevant test. Therefore, glycohemoglobin level is useful in determining long-term blood glucose level control. But this is not a very useful test in diagnosing diabetes.
Furthermore, glycosylated hemoglobin is a more general term that encompasses all forms of sugar-modified hemoglobin. However, clinical practitioners do not typically use it as a marker for diabetes.
Difference Between Glycated and Glycosylated Hemoglobin
Glycated hemoglobin refers to the hemoglobin molecules that have glucose bound to them in a non-enzymatic pathway, while glycosylated hemoglobin refers to the enzymatic addition of a carbohydrate molecule, such as glucose, to a protein, which can occur in various proteins in the body, including hemoglobin.
While glycated hemoglobins form when glucose molecules irreversibly bind with hemoglobin molecules in a non-enzymatic process, glycosylated hemoglobins form when glucose molecules bind to hemoglobin molecules enzymatically.
Method of Measurement
Glycated hemoglobin is measured using a laboratory test HbA1c, which quantifies the percentage of glycated hemoglobin in the total hemoglobin pool. Glycosylated hemoglobin is not typically measured directly but can be inferred from the total amount of sugar-modified hemoglobin.
Furthermore, clinicians use glycated hemoglobin as a clinical indicator of long-term blood glucose control in people with diabetes, while they do not commonly use glycosylated hemoglobin for this purpose.
Glycated and glycosylated hemoglobins are two different forms of hemoglobin molecules. The main difference between glycated and glycosylated hemoglobin is their formation. Glycated hemoglobin forms when glucose molecules irreversibly bind with hemoglobin molecules in a non-enzymatic process, whereas glycosylated hemoglobin forms when glucose molecules bind to hemoglobin molecules enzymatically.