The main difference between prolactin and macroprolactin is that prolactin is a physiologically active protein that enables females to produce milk, whereas macro prolactin is a physiologically inactive protein isoform of prolactin.
Prolactin is an active protein that enables females to produce more milk. The pituitary of the brain secretes it. Moreover, it plays an important role in lactation, reproduction, and immune function. Macroprolactin is another form of prolactin.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is Prolactin
– Definition, Biological Activity, Function
2. What is Macroprolactin
– Definition, Biological Activity, Function
3. Similarities – Prolactin and Macroprolactin
– Outline of Common Features
4. Difference Between Prolactin and Macroprolactin
– Comparison of Key Differences
What is Prolactin
Prolactin is a hormone that is responsible mainly for lactation and breast tissue development. The pituitary gland produces most of it. Prolactin levels are high in people who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Prolactin levels will also rise in situations like physical stress, exercise, eating a meal, sexual intercourse, nipple stimulation unrelated to chest feeding, injury to your chest area, and epileptic seizures.
There are many functions of prolactin, as it helps in reproduction, metabolism, regulation of fluids, regulation of the immune system, and behavioral functions.
The production of prolactin is mainly regulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is produced by the hypothalamus. Dopamine restrains prolactin production so that when there is more dopamine present, less prolactin is released. This operates according to a negative feedback mechanism. Estrogen also regulates prolactin. In addition to dopamine and estrogen, there are other hormones that increase and decrease the amount of prolactin released in the body. These include oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone.
Furthermore, there are many causes of abnormal prolactin levels. They are prolactinoma (which is a benign tumor in the pituitary gland that produces too much prolactin), diseases affecting the hypothalamus, anorexia, drugs, and chest injury or irritation. Conditions like kidney diseases, liver failure, and polycystic ovarian syndrome also affect the body’s ability to remove prolactin.
What is Macroprolactin
Macroprolactin is an abnormally large molecule of prolactin. It is produced when several prolactin molecules join together or when prolactin binds to an antibody. It is usually composed of a prolactin monomer and an IgG molecule. Macroprolactin has a prolonged clearance rate that is similar to that of immunoglobulins. Its special shape prevents prolactin from being eliminated normally, resulting in an increase in measurable levels in the blood.
This macroprolactin is usually inactive in the blood. Certain chemicals, such as polyethylene glycol, remove microprolactin from the body.
Similarities Between Prolactin and Macroprolactin
- Prolactin and macroprolactin are two protein molecules found in the body.
- Moreover, these proteins are made up of amino acids.
- Both forms are present in males and females.
- In addition, these forms are present in adult serums.
Between Prolactin and Macroprolactin
Prolactin is a physiologically active protein that enables females to produce milk, whereas macroprolactin is a physiologically inactive protein isoform of prolactin.
Prolactin is bioactive, whereas macroprolactin is non-bioactive.
While prolactin is a small molecule, macroprolactin is a large molecule.
Prolactin plays a key role in lactation, metabolism, regulation of the immune system, and pancreatic development, whereas macroprolactin is not involved in any function due to its inactivity.
Prolactin is an active protein that enables females to produce more milk. It is secreted by the pituitary of the brain and is involved in lactation, reproduction, and immune function. Macroprolactin is another form of prolactin. The main difference between prolactin and macro prolactin is that prolactin is a physiologically active protein milk, whereas macro prolactin is a physiologically inactive protein isoform of prolactin.
1. “What is a Prolactin Test?” WebMD.
2. “Macroprolactin.” Science Direct.
1. “Prolactin regulation” By Procedureready – Own work (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia
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