The main difference between protease and proteinase is that proteases are involved in the cleavage of the peptide bond in proteins, while proteinases are a type of protease capable of cleaving internal peptide bonds.
Proteins are macromolecules that are composed of amino acid monomers. They are structurally arranged into different levels. Proteins differ from one another due to changes in their sequence of amino acids. A linear chain of amino acids is called a polypeptide. A protein has at least one long polypeptide.
Proteins have both structural and functional properties in the body. Protein degradation or proteolysis is an enzyme-catalyzed reaction taking place with the involvement of a specialized enzyme type known as hydrolases. This degradation of proteins is significant in industries such as the leather industry, wool industry, genetic engineering procedures, and the food industry. Proteases and proteinases are two hydrolases necessary for protein degradation.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is a Protease
– Definition, Features, Functions
2. What is a Proteinase
– Definition, Features
3. Similarities – Protease and Proteinase
– Outline of Common Features
4. Difference Between Protease and Proteinase
– Comparison of Key Differences
What is a Protease
A protease is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or into single amino acids. The breakdown of proteins is referred to as proteolysis. The breakdown involves cleaving peptide bonds within proteins by hydrolysis. In fact, hydrolysis is a reaction in which water breaks bonds. There are different types of proteases according to the sites at which they catalyze the cleavage of proteins. The two main groups are exopeptidases and endopeptidases. Exopeptidases target the terminal ends of the proteins, while endopeptidases target the sites within the proteins. Proteases can also be classified into several categories based on other factors, such as their substrate specificity and cellular location. Furthermore, the major types of proteases include serine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases, and metalloproteases.
Proteases are present in bacteria, archaea, certain types of algae, some viruses, and plants and abundantly in animals. Some proteolytic enzymes found in supplements include bromelain, papain, chymotrypsin, and trypsin.
Proteases play a major role in many biological processes. Such functions are digestion, cellular signaling, protein turnover, as well as host defense. In digestion, proteases break down dietary proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids. In addition, in cellular signaling, proteases cleave, activate, and inactivate various signaling molecules. Proteins are also responsible for degrading and recycling damaged or misfolded proteins. Moreover, the role of proteins in the host defense is to contribute to the immune response by cleaving and inactivating invading pathogens or by activating antimicrobial peptides.
Furthermore, the dysregulation of proteases is associated with diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.
What is a Proteinase
Proteinase is a type of protease. In fact, it is a type an endopeptidase. Proteinase’s action is similar to a protease. Therefore, it participates in cleaving the internal peptide linkages of long peptide chains.
Proteinases also exhibit significant importance in normal physiological functions and in industrial purposes.
Similarities Between Protease and Proteinase
- Both proteases and proteinases are hydrolases.
- Proteinase is a type of protease.
- Both enzymes cleave the peptide bonds of protein and degrade proteins.
- They act as proteolytic enzymes.
- Moreover, both play an important role in digestion.
Difference Between Protease and Proteinase
A protease is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or into single amino acids, while proteinase is a type of protease.
Proteases can be endopeptidases or exopeptidases, whereas proteinases are endopeptidases.
In brief, proteins are macromolecules containing amino acid monomers. Moreover, protein degradation or proteolysis is an enzyme-catalyzed reaction taking place with the involvement of a specialized enzyme type known as hydrolases. Proteases and proteinases are two hydrolases necessary for protein degradation. The main difference between proteases and proteinase is that proteases take part in the cleavage of the peptide bond in proteins, while proteinases are a type of protease capable of cleaving the internal peptide bonds.
1. “Protease mechanisms” By Thomas Shafee – Thomas, Shafee, (2014). “Evolvability of a viral protease: experimental evolution of catalysis, robustness, and specificity.” PhD Thesis. University of Cambridge. (CC BY 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia
2. “Proteinase K with Calcium binding sites” By Lykchiniadis – Own work (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia