The main difference between succinate and tartrate is their chemical structure. Succinate is a dicarboxylic acid with a linear structure with a four-carbon chain and two carboxyl groups at each end, whereas tartrate compounds, such as tartaric acid, have two carboxyl groups, but their chemical structure is more complex.
Succinate and tartrate are two distinct chemical compounds with unique properties and applications. In general, succinate is a dicarboxylic acid crucial in cellular energy production, while tartrate refers to a family of compounds derived from tartaric acid.
Key Areas Covered
1. What is Succinate (Butanedioic Acid)
– Definition, Features
2. What is Tartrate
– Definition, Features
3. Similarities Between Succinate and Tartrate
– Outline of Common Features
4. Difference Between Succinate and Tartrate
– Comparison of Key Differences
Butanedioic Acid, C4H6O4, Succinate, Tartrate, Tartaric Acid
What is Succinate
Succinate (butanedioic acid) is an organic acid crucial in generating energy, maintaining metabolic balance, and extending its influence into industries like biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. Succinate is a dicarboxylic acid, which means it contains two carboxyl (COOH) groups. Its chemical formula is C4H6O4, and its structure consists of a four-carbon chain with two carboxyl groups, one at each end.
Succinate primarily associates with cellular respiration, where it participates in the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA cycle). This cycle is a central metabolic pathway occurring within the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and is responsible for generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Dysregulation of succinate metabolism is associated with various diseases, including metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Abnormal succinate levels can disrupt cellular processes and contribute to disease development.
Succinate also involves in the cellular response to hypoxia (low oxygen levels). Elevated succinate levels can stabilize a transcription factor called hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), which helps cells adapt to low-oxygen environments.
Succinate plays a role in immune cell activation and function. It can influence the activity of immune cells like macrophages and T cells, affecting immune responses and inflammation.
Succinate is a valuable precursor for producing biodegradable plastics, such as polybutylene succinate (PBS) and polybutylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA). These bioplastics offer environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional petroleum-based plastics.
Succinate is also used in the pharmaceutical industry as a pharmaceutical excipient. It can be added to medications as a buffering agent to maintain pH stability and enhance the solubility of certain drugs. Succinic acid, a succinate derivative, functions as an acidity regulator and flavor enhancer in the food and beverage industry. It often has the food additive number E363.
What is Tartrate
Tartrate is a term that refers to compounds derived from tartaric acid, which is a naturally occurring organic acid found in various plants, especially grapes. Tartaric acid has the chemical formula C4H6O6 and contains four hydroxyl (-OH) groups and two carboxyl (-COOH) groups. Due to its ability to form salts and esters, tartaric acid and its derivatives are collectively known as tartrates.
One of the most well-known tartrate compounds is potassium hydrogen tartrate, often referred to as cream of tartar. Cream of tartar is a white, powdery substance that is a byproduct of winemaking. People commonly use it in cooking and baking as a leavening agent, stabilizer for whipped egg whites, and acidulant in various recipes.
Other tartrate compounds include sodium tartrate, calcium tartrate, and tartaric acid itself. Tartrates may have various industrial and culinary applications depending on their properties and chemical compositions.
Similarities Between Succinate and Tartrate
- Both succinate and tartrate are dicarboxylic acids, meaning they have two carboxyl groups.
- They contribute to the acidity of solutions in which they are dissolved.
Difference Between Succinate and Tartrate
Succinate is a chemical compound classified as a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula C4H6O4, whereas tartrate is a term used to refer to compounds derived from tartaric acid, which is a naturally occurring organic acid found in various plants.
Succinate is a dicarboxylic acid, meaning it contains two carboxyl groups. Its structure consists of a four-carbon chain with two carboxyl groups attached to two carbon atoms, separated by a methylene group. However, the structure of tartrate is more complex than succinate. Moreover, it consists of a four-carbon chain with four hydroxyl groups and two carboxyl groups.
Succinate is not commonly found in significant quantities in plant sources like fruits. Tartrate compounds, particularly tartaric acid, are naturally occurring in various plant sources, most notably grapes.
In brief, the main difference between succinate and tartrate is their chemical structure. Succinate is a dicarboxylic acid with a linear structure with a four-carbon chain and two carboxyl groups at each end, whereas tartrate compounds, such as tartaric acid, have two carboxyl groups, but their chemical structure is more complex.
1. “SUCCINATE: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews.” WebMD.
2. “Tartrate.” Wikipedia. Wikipedia Foundation.